Protons for BreakfastElectricityWeek 1 November 2013
The plan for the evening… Feedback More talk Walkabout 8:59 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. 8:30 p.m. to 8:59 p.m. 8:00 p.m. to 8:29 p.m. Talk 7:00 p.m. to 7:59 p.m.
Nadia Smith Nori Safi Paul Carroll Paul Green Peter Nisbet-Jones Peter Quested Peter Woolliams Rainer Winkler Ralf Mouthaan Robert Goddard Ruth Pearce Sharmila Hanson Stephanie Bell Sue Gibbons Sue Oakley Tracey Skinner Who is helping? Jessica Cross Brown John Gallop John Makepeace John Mountford Jonathan Pearce Jordan Tompkins Joseph Thom Kate Wilkinson Lauren Petrie Laurie Winkless Leigh Stanger Lindsay Chapman Lloyd England Louise Brown Maria Lodeiro Marieke Beckmann Marta Doval Minarro Amir Kayani Andrew Hanson Andy Knott Averil Horton Claire Greenwell Dale Partridge David Clay Deborah Lea Edward Brightman Gianluca Memoli James Claverley James Miall Jane Burston Jeff Flowers Jenny Hully Jenny Wilkinson
Michael de Podesta Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire! Age 53: Weight 82.6 kg • Lecturer in Physics at University of London for 13 years • Understanding the Properties of Matter • At NPL for 13 years. • Most accurate thermometer ever made! • International Surface Temperature Initiative • Married with two sons(aged 15 & 17) • Keen on Water Rockets
Why am I here? I am here because I believe … Science is humanity’s greatest achievement
Why are you here? • To better understand science and maybe improve my grade in science GCSE, and to ask as many questions as I like. • I love science and [I want to ] to expose my son to science as it is one of his favourite subjects at school • Enjoyed your session at last year's NPL Open Day and would like to find out more. • ‘cos Princess Diana said "knowledge is power" and I want power. • Lack of basic understanding about physics and would like to be able to be more critical about 'new discoveries' etc. in news media. • My mum says it will be fun. Recently found my way back to science after being totally put off it at school. Thinking of retraining to teach physics
The image of science:1Mad Muppets top cult science poll Dr Honeydew is known the world over for his disastrous research at Muppet Labs, "where the future is being made today". His experiments invariably go awry, with poor old Beaker usually being blown to bits or electrocuted. BBC 6/9/2004
The image of science:2Science Gone Wrong What! BANG! The final touch… Alex Noble (Age 9)
The image of science:3An un-scientific experiment Scientist ……… Scientist
In contrast… • A room full of people who want to learn about science • Helped by volunteers • In a world where ignorance makes us powerless
Tonight’s talk • The scale and size of the Universe • Electricity • How Electricity works • Atoms • Light
Tonight’s talk The scale and size of the Universe or ‘How not to be boggled!’
The imperceptible and the vast As human beings we can judge: temperatures close to ‘normal’ weights greater than a gram up to around 1000 kilograms distances greater than a millimetre or less than a few kilometres. times greater than a second or less than a fraction of a lifetime.
The imperceptible and the vast As human beings we cannot judge: temperatures more a few degrees away from ‘normal’ Such temperatures just feel ‘very hot’ or ‘very cold’ weights beyond a few tonnes or less than a gram Such weights seem either stupendously heavy or negligible distances less than a millimetre or greater than a few kilometres. Such distances are too tiny or too far to perceive directly times less than a second or more than a fraction of a lifetime. Such times are too small or too long for us to appreciate
The imperceptible and the vast Measuring instruments extend our senses Telescopes & Microscopes, Weighing machines, Devices sensitive to electricity & light, Clocks NPL enables people to trust measurements
Quantities and qualities that extend beyond our ability to perceive them seem: imperceptibleorvast ? ? Science helps us extend our senses But we can still feel boggled!
The Planet Earth Diameter: 12,800 km Deepest hole: 10 km Atmosphere: 10 km Photo Credit: NASA
The Moon Diameter Earth: 12,800 km Moon: 3476 km Photo Credit: NASA
The Sun Earth Diameter: 1,390,800 km Photo Credit: NASA
Powers of Ten I hope that you are now a little unsettled and ready to go on a 9 minute journey to see how the world looks at different levels of ‘fantasy magnification’ Photo Credit: Powers of 10
Powers of Ten (1) 1 metre 1000000000000 m Very Very Small Very Very Large 0.001 m 1000000000 m 0.000000001 m 0.000001 m 1000000 m 1000 m Can you see the problem with very small and very large numbers?
Powers of Ten (2) 1 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 1030 1036 Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 1021 1027 1033 100 0.000001 10-6 1000000 106 1012 10-3 0.001 1000 103 109 1015
Powers of Ten (3) 1 metre 1000000000000 m 0.000000000001 m 10-18 10-12 1012 Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 1018 1024 10-6 106 1012 1030 1036 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033
Powers of TenLength Scale in metres Diameter of a hair Diameter of the Earth Distance to the Sun Current estimate of the size of the universe Microbes Viruses Human Relationships Quarks 100 Nucleiof atoms Atoms & molecules Nanotechnology Tallest Mountain Nearest Star Light Year 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 106 1012 1030 1036 ? Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033
Powers of TenLength Scale in metres Diameter of a hair Diameter of the Earth Distance to the Sun Current estimate of the size of the universe Microbes Viruses What goes on here? String Theory M-Branes ???????? ? ? Human Relationships Quarks 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 100 106 1012 1030 1036 10-36 10-30 10-24 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033 10-33 10-27 10-21 Nucleiof atoms Atoms & molecules Large Hadron Collider Nanotechnology Tallest Mountain Nearest Star Light Year Large Hadron Collider
Powers of TenGlobal Warming Diameter of the Earth Distance to the Sun Microbes Atoms & molecules Tallest Mountain Human Relationships 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 100 106 1012 1030 1036 Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033 The phenomenon of global warming involves physical processes with length scales spanning 20 powers of 10!
Powers of TenNuclear Power Diameter of the Earth Distance to the Sun Microbes Human Relationships Nucleiof atoms Atoms & molecules 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 100 106 1012 1030 1036 Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033 The issues surrounding nuclear power involve physical processes with length scales spanning 25 powers of 10! Tallest Mountain
Powers of Ten (time)Time scale in seconds 1 second Earth moves once around the Sun Estimated time since the big bang Light wave wiggles once Time for a molecule to jiggle once Fastest response of human eye Sound travels 1 metre A human lifetime Lifetime of a Civilisation End of last ice age Age of the Earth 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 100 106 1012 Very Very short Very Very Long 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021
The Universe • Its very big, but full of very small things ? ?
Tonight’s talk • The scale and size of the Universe • Its very big, but full of very small things • Electricity • How it works • Atoms • Light
How it all fits together… Electricity Atoms Heat Electromagnetic waves
Eeeee - lec- tric-ity Electricity
Electricity Some experiments…
Lets take a look at some odd phenomena… • A balloon and a piece of paper
Lets take a look at some odd phenomena… • If I balance my glasses carefully…
Even a sausage… • Sausages…
…its everything… The balloon affects anything and everything nearby To understand this, we need to understand • what matter is made of, and • how this ‘influence’ is communicated across ‘space’
A simple scientific instrument: The gold leaf electroscope • Scientists can develop instruments to measure the relative strengths of the ‘electric influence’ • Based on the same effect we saw with bits of paper
The Van de Graaff Generator • Scientists can develop machines to automate and amplify the ‘rubbing’ process with the balloon Photo Credits: Katherine Robinson and MIT
The Van de Graaff Generator It is not important to understand how a Van de Graaff generator works PictureCredits: http://www.ikp.uni-koeln.de/~3T/tandem-prinzip1.htmlhttp://science.howstuffworks.com/vdg1.htm
The Van de Graaff Generator It is not important to understand how a Van de Graaff generator works
The Wimshurst Machine Sorry: I cannot explain how a Wimshurst Machine works! Photo Credits: Wikipedia andhttp://www.coe.ufrj.br/~acmq/electrostatic.html
Electrostatic Generators • People have been doing this for a long time… Photo Credits: http://www.ikp.uni-koeln.de/~3T/tandem-prinzip1.html
Conclusion… Electricity is present inside ALL matter Its ‘influence’ can be communicated across ‘empty’ space
Tonight’s talk • The scale and size of the Universe • Its very big, but full of very small things • Electricity • It’s everywhere! • How it works • Atoms • Light