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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Human Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Human Anatomy and Physiology The Urinary System

  2. Functions of Kidney • Salt and water balance • pH balance • Excretion of nitrogenous waste (ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine)

  3. Functions of the Kidney • Activation of Vitamin D • Vitamin D made in the skin is converted to Vitamin D3 by the kidney • Active Vitamin D (D3) assists homeostasis by increasing calcium absorption from the digestive tract Unit 1 - Objective 1

  4. Functions of Kidney • Maintain salt and water balance • Maintain pH balance • Excretion of nitrogenous waste (ammonia, urea, uric acid)

  5. Functions of the Kidney • Release of Erythropoietin by the kidney • Erythropoietin stimulates new RBC production • New RBC’s assist homeostasis by insuring adequate Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide transport Unit 1 - Objective 1

  6. Functions of the Kidney • Release of Renin by the kidney • Renin stimulates the formation of a powerful vasoconstrictor called Angiotensin II • Angiotensin II assists homeostasis by causing vasoconstriction which increases blood pressure Unit 1 - Objective 1

  7. Urinary System Renal artery Renal Vein Kidney Ureter Urinary Bladder For sphincters, see next slide

  8. Kidney Diagram Medulla Calyx Pyramid Renal Vein Cortex Renal Artery Nephron Pelvis Capsule Ureter

  9. Nephron • Structural and functional units of kidney- over 1 million in each kidney! • Nephron composed of • Glomerulus – knot of capillaries • Renal tubule

  10. Proximal convoluted tubule Efferent arteriole Glomerulus Afferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries Bowman’s capsule Distal convoluted tubule Vasa recta Decending limb of loop of Henle Collecting duct Ascending limb of loop of Henle Diagram of Kidney Nephron Unit 1 - Objective 4

  11. Location of the Glomerulus Efferent Arteriole Afferent Arteriole Bowman’s Capsule Glomerulus Proximal Convoluted Tubule

  12. Bowman’s Capsule Efferent Arteriole DCT PCT MaculaDensa Cells GranularJuxtaglomerular (JG) Cells Afferent Arteriole

  13. nephron

  14. Proximal convoluted tubule Efferent arteriole Glomerulus Afferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries Bowman’s capsule Distal convoluted tubule Vasa recta Decending limb of loop of Henle Collecting duct Ascending limb of loop of Henle Diagram of Kidney Nephron Unit 1 - Objective 4

  15. Normal Urine

  16. Abnormal components - Urine • Protein Renal disease, severe anemia Glucose Diabetes mellitus • Blood Renal disease • Hemoglobin Renal disease • Bacteria Infection

  17. Internal urethral sphincter External Urethral Sphincter Urinary System Female Sphincters Male Sphincters

  18. Functions of Nephron Structures • Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) • A thick, constantly actively segment of the nephron that reabsorbs most of the usefulsubstances of the filtrate: sodium (65%), water (65%), bicarbonate (90%), chloride (50%), glucose (nearly 100%!), etc. • The primary site for secretion (elimination) of drugs, waste and hydrogen ions Unit 1 - Objective 4

  19. nephron

  20. Proximal convoluted tubule Efferent arteriole Glomerulus Afferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries Bowman’s capsule Distal convoluted tubule Vasa recta Decending limb of loop of Henle Collecting duct Ascending limb of loop of Henle Diagram of Kidney Nephron Unit 1 - Objective 4

  21. nephron

  22. Functions of Nephron Structures • Decending Limb of the Loop of Henle • freely permeable to water and relatively impermeable to solutes (salt particles) • receives filtrate from the PCT, allows water to be reabsorbed and sends “salty”filtrate on the the next segment. “Saves water andpasses the salt” Unit 1 - Objective 4

  23. Functions of Nephron Structures • Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle • impermeable to water and activelytransports (reabsorbs) salt (NaCl) to the interstitial fluid of the pyramids in the medulla. “Saves salt and passes the water.” • the passing filtrate becomes dilute and the interstitium(medulla) becomes hyperosmotic Unit 1 - Objective 4

  24. nephron

  25. Functions of Nephron Structures • Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) • receives dilute fluid from the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle • Variably active portion of the nephron • When aldosterone(hormone) is present, sodium is reabsorbed and potassium issecreted. Water and chloride follow the sodium. Unit 1 - Objective 4

  26. nephron

  27. Functions of Nephron Structures • Collecting Duct • receives fluid from the DCT • variably active portion of the Nephron • when antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is present, this duct will become porousto water. Water from the collecting duct fluid then moves by osmosis into the “salty” (hyperosmotic) interstitium of the medulla. • The last segment to save water for the body Unit 1 - Objective 4

  28. Functions of Nephron Structures • Peritubular Capillaries • transport reabsorbed materials from the PCT and DCT into kidney veins and eventually back into the general circulation • help complete the conservation process (reabsorption) that takes place in the kidney Unit 1 - Objective 4

  29. Aldosterone • Hormone secreted from the adrenal cortex • Stimulates kidneys • Retain sodium • Retain water • Secrete potassium • Increase blood volume and blood pressure

  30. ADH- CD permeable to water H2O Antidiuretic HormoneADH Collecting Duct Reabsorb water Increase blood volume Increase blood pressure Urine

  31. Dialysis Therapy Dialysis is a process that artificially removes metabolic wastes from the blood in order to compensate for kidney (renal) failure. Kidney failure results in the rapid accumulation of nitrogen waste (urea, etc.) which leads to azotemia. Uremia and ion disturbances can also occur. This condition can cause acidosis, labored breathing, convulsions, coma and death. Unit 1 - Objective 11

  32. Dialysis Therapy The most common form of dialysis is hemodialysis which uses a machine to transfer patient’s blood through a semipermeable tube that is permeable only to selected substances. The dialysis machine contains an appropriate dialysis fluid that produces a diffusion gradient. This gradient allows abnormal substances to diffuse from the patient’s blood and produce a “cleaning” effect. Unit 1 - Objective 11

  33. Dialysis Therapy Some key aspects of hemodialysis are: - blood is typically transferred from an arm artery - after dialysis, blood is typically returned to an arm vein - to prevent clotting, blood is typically heparinized - dialysis sessions occur about three times a week - each dialysis session can last four to eight hours! - long term dialysis can lead to thrombosis (fixed blood clots), infection and death of tissue around a shunt (the blood access site in the arm) Unit 1 - Objective 11