Human Anatomy And Physiology I Orientation to Class and the Human Body Lisa S. Taylor
What is Anatomy and Physiology? Anatomy: study of Structure, includes not only body parts but their relationships to one another Physiology: Study of Function, or how the body parts work
Why study Anatomy and Physiology? • Your body…we all change, get sick or injured, grow and shrink • Your career…medical orientation, psychological orientation, work with sports and athletes, work with children • Your family…this course gives you information to deal with aging parents and siblings, children • Lifestyle, medical, insurance decisions
General Class Rules and Expectations • Practice the Golden Rule: I won’t waste your time, so don’t waste mine. This means come to class prepared and on time. I will do the same. • No major eating in class. I would prefer just a water bottle in class. Never any eating or drinking in lab. • Treat everyone in our class with respect and dignity. We are a system and we will all get more out of class when everyone is a supported part. • Assignments should be turned in when due. The most any late assignment can receive is a 70. No late assignments will be accepted after the unit test. • You are responsible for any missed work or test due to absence. You can not take additional class time to make up a test or assignment. You must find another time to come in for make up work. • Use your syllabus and class website for class expectations and schedules.
Safety in Class and Lab Safety Objectives: • Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations. • Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus. • Demonstrate appropriate technique in all laboratory situations. • Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations. In order to assure safety in lab and class, you will be required to complete the following assignments. • Review lab safety videos • Take lab safety quiz until you demonstrate 100% mastery. • Sign lab safety contract
Basic Vocabulary Anatomy/ Physiology • Macroscopic anatomy • Gross anatomy • Regional anatomy • Systemic anatomy • Surface anatomy • Microscopic anatomy • Cytology • Histology • Developmental anatomy • Embryology • Pathological anatomy • Radiographic anatomy • Systemic physiology
Check your understanding: • Why would you have a hard time learning about and understanding physiology if you did not also study anatomy? • ID Anatomy or Physiology • Investigating how muscles shorten? • Exploring the location of the lungs in the body? • Identifying organs in the thoracic cavity? • Describing how your body maintains a constant temperature? • Listing all parts of integumentary system?
List in order of smallest to largest: • Atoms • Tissues • Cells • Organs • Protons • Body Systems • Organisms • Tissues • Organelles • Electrons • Molecules
Functions Necessary to Maintain Life • Maintaining boundaries • Organismal separation from environment • Cellular boundaries • Movement • Externally and internally • Responsiveness or “irritability” • Ability to sense changes in environment and respond to them • Digestion • Break down ingested food into simple molecules that can be absorbed and used in cells • Metabolism • All chemical reactions within body cells • Catabolism, anabolism, cellular respiration • Excretion • Removing wastes from body • Reproduction • Cellular level • Organismal level • Growth • Increase in either number of cells or size of cells
Survival Needs for all body systems to maintain life • Nutrients • Where do we get these? • What are the categories? • What systems involved in providing nutrients to body? • Oxygen • Where do we get this? • Why is this necessary? • What systems provide oxygen to body? • Water • Why is this so important? • Appropriate Temperature • Normal body temp? • What happens if too low? • What happens if too high? • Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure • Define • What does atmospheric pressure affect?
For each body system, describe the anatomy, physiology and what survival need it provides • Integumentary System • Skeletal System • Muscular System • Nervous System • Endocrine System • Cardiovascular System • Lymphatic System • Immune System • Respiratory System • Digestive System • Urinary System • Reproductive System
Homeostasis • Homeo = the same • Stasis = standing still • Homeostasis really isn’t unchanging…its always changing, its just keeping whatever is changing within relatively narrow limits • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d2YWonZsh_M&feature=related • Homeostasis can be divided into negative and positive feedback. Most survival needs are negative feedback.
Why would body need a positive feedback mechanism? Give another example of positive feedback.
Homeostatic Imbalance • Most disease can be regarded as a homeostatic imbalance • Aging makes our body systems less efficient • Injury or illness may impair body systems’ ability to maintain homeostatic balance • Sometimes feedback loops are just overwhelmed…the systems involved cannot keep up with the balancing requirements • Throughout this course, we will address issues of homeostatic imbalance in each body system we study. I encourage you to please bring up additional instances of homeostatic imbalance in each unit.
Language of Anatomy You are responsible for the following: • Anatomical Position • “17” Directional Terms • Regional Body Terms as outlined in class • Body Planes and sections • Body Cavities • Quadrants of Abdominopelvic cavity • Nine regions of Abdominopelvic Cavity Use your text, note taking sheet and our class activities to complete your notes on this section.
Directional Terms Superior (cranial) Inferior (caudal) Ventral (anterior) Dorsal (posterior) Medial Lateral Intermediate Proximal Distal Superficial (external) Deep (internal)
Test yourself • The patellar region is __ to the femoral region • The pleura regions are __ to the integumentary layer • The clavicle is __ and ___to the sternum • The cardiac region (heart) is __ to the sternum • The sternum is __ to the cervical vertebrae • The navel is __ to the heart • The skin (integumentary) is ___ to the skeletal muscles • The olecranal region is __ to the carpal region • The pelvic cavity is __ to the thoracic cavity • The otic region (ear) is __ to the acromial region • The plantar region is __ to the entire body
Body Planes and Sections What section would result in right and left lateral sides? What section would result in anterior and posterior sides? What section would result in superior and inferior sides?
VENTRAL CAVITY MEMBRANES: Serous Membrane: this double layered membrane with a slippery fluid between each layer, also called the serosa Parietal serosa: the layer of serosa that lines the cavity walls Visceral serosa: the layer of serosa that covers the organs in the cavity Serous fluid: thin layer of lubricating fluid secreted by both membranes Pericardium: serous membrane around the heart Pleura: around the lung Peritoneal: abdominal cavity
Online chapter review quiz Use the following link to access online quiz for each chapter/ topic. Many students find these quizzes are helpful to prepare for tests. After you take the quiz the correct answers are provided. http://teacherpages.hallco.org/webpages/ltaylor1/myquiz.cfm Choose correct class from drop down menu Click on the quiz name (not view) UNG: Access is your first and last name as in D2L and your password is your first and last initial.