Human Anatomy and Physiology By: Adolfo Velazquez
Circulatory System William Harvey • William Harvey was a physician in the 1600’s who questioned the beliefs and theories of Galen. Although nobody dared to challenge Galen, Harvey was the first one to do so. He constructed his own experiments and proved many of Galen’s theories wrong. He discovered new information on how blood travels through your body and your heart. It is said that without his discovers, a lot of the medical miracles that we have today would be impossible.
Circulatory system Major Blood Vessels • There are four major blood vessels. They are: • Arteries- which is an elastic blood vessel that transport blood away from the heart. • Veins- which transport blood from different parts of the body to the heart. • Capillaries- which are very small blood vessels located within the tissue of the body that transport blood from arteries to veins. • Sinusoids- which are used to exchange oxygen, carbon dioxide, proteins, nutrients and waste.
Circulatory system Blood flow through vertebrate animals • Once blood is pumped from the heart into the blood vessels, there is a certain path that the blood flows through. First it goes through pulmonary circulation, then through systemic circulation. During pulmonary circulation, the blood filled with waste (co2) is filtered through the lungs to carry fresh oxygen. Then the oxygen fresh blood is carried back to the heart and through the rest of the body.
Circulatory system Evolution of the vertebrate heart • there are three different types of hearts. There are two chambered basic vertebrate hearts, such as in a fish. Three chambered hearts that appear in amphibians. And four chambered hearts such as the ones that humans have. In the two chambered heart, one chamber receives the blood while the other distributes it. In the three chambered heart, there is an extra chamber for distributing the blood. And the four chambered heart is the one with the most complex receiving/distributing system of the blood.
Circulatory system Pathway of blood through the heart • There are 6 steps to this pathway. • First oxygen poor blood flows from the body to the right atrium. • Then blood flows through the right atrium into the right ventricle. • Next the right ventricle pumps it to the lungs where it releases gas wastes and picks up fresh oxygen. • The newly oxygen rich blood returns to the heart through the left atrium. • Blood then flows through the left atrium to the left ventricle. • Finally the left ventricle pumps the oxygen rich blood through the whole body
Circulatory system Blood Types • The four types of blood are A, B, AB, and O. • A can donate red blood cells to A’s and AB’s. • B can donate red blood cells to B’s and AB’s. • AB can donate to other AB’s but can receive from all of the other types because of its mixture of proteins. • O can donate to all types. It is known as the universal donor.
Integumentary System The integumentary system • The integumentary system has many roles in homeostasis including protection, temperature regulation, sensory reception, biochemical synthesis, and absorption. • All of the body’s systems work together to accomplish all of these tasks. • The structures that help are those such as skin, glands, hair, etc…
Integumentary system Epithelial structures • All of these structures share some common qualities such as what they are used for. They all are small wholes used for releasing substances. The difference is that some release waste or heat when others release needed things such as hair and skin. They also help the growth of things such as nails.
Integumentary system Skin • This diagram is an example of all the different layers in skin and the roots under all of them.
Skeletal System Bones And Their Functions • Three bones in the head region are: • skull- which is located around your head and is the protection of the soft and fragile brain. • Maxilla- which is located near the mouth and holds together the upper teeth. • Mandible- which is located near the mouth and holds the lower teeth. • Three bones in the arm are: • Humerus- which is located near the elbow and connects the upper part of the arm to the lower. • Radius- which is connected to the elbow and works as connections for muscles, nerves, and ligaments. • Ulna- which is located in the forearm and works to similarly to the radius bone.
Skeletal System Bones And Their Functions • Three bones in the mid section are: • Vertebrae- which is located in the back of your body, and like other long bones it works to hold weight. • Pelvis- which is located at the base of the spine and works as a base for your legs. • Sacrum- which is located at the base of the spine and helps with the balance in the body. • Three bones in the leg are: • Femur- which is located in the thigh helps holding the body’s weight and works as an attachment. • Patella- which is located in front of the knee and works as protection to the knee joint. (knee cap) • Tibia- which is under the knee is the connection from knee to the ankle.
Reproductive System Overview • The reproductive system consists of two cells, sperm and egg. They meet inside of the female and once they meet up the sperm fertilizes the egg and the process of life begins. • In humans, it will take nine months and the new human will be born into this world. • Some organisms may need to be artificially inseminated.
Reproductive System Female • The female reproductive system consists of many different organs including the vula, vagina, uterus, the fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. • All of the organs perform different tasks. For example, the uterus is the womb. • Unlike in males, the female’s reproductive organs are mostly hidden and not visible.
Reproductive System Male • The male reproductive system is made up of many different organs, some showing and some hidden. The system allows a male to undergo sexual intercourse and fertilize a female’s egg. • The visible parts are the penis and the scrotum. The rest of the organs are hidden inside of the body but are equally important in fertilizing a female’s egg.
Urinary System • The urinary system consists of the kidneys, bladder, ureter, and the urethra. • The kidneys work to separate urea, mineral salts, toxins, and other waste products from the blood. In addition, the kidneys also conserve water, salts, and electrolytes. • The bladder works to collect urine from your kidneys until it is full and ready to release it. • The ureter connects the kidney to the bladder and the urine flows through them to be stored until ready to be released. • The urethra is a tube where urine is released and sperm too in males.
Digestive system • The organs in the digestive system are: • The mouth- which is the beginning of the system and helps break down food. • Esophagus- which is where the food goes from the mouth to travel down into your stomach. • Stomach- which is a hallow organ where gastric acid mix with food to make into usable substances. • Small intestine- which is made up of three parts works at breaking food down with enzymes it has received. • Liver/Pancreas- which give enzymes to help break food down. • Rectum- holds the substances in until it is ok to release all necessary substances. • Anus- the last part of the system. A canal that the waste goes through.
Respiratory System • The organs in the respiratory system are: • Nostrils- which are in charge of taking in oxygen rich air. • Trachea (windpipe)- is in charge of filtering the air we inhale. • Bronchi- tubes that branch from the trachea that carry atmospheric air to the lungs. • Lungs- the main organ in the respiratory system that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. • Alveolus- tiny sac in the lungs where the gaseous exchange takes place. • Diaphragm- the organ where the breathing brgins in the body.
Endocrine system GlandsHormones • Adrenals Aldosterone • Thymus Calcitonin • Pituitary Growth hormone • Thyroid Thyroxine
Muscular System Upper Arm • The upper arm consists of three major muscles which are: • Deltoids- at the very top. • Triceps- in the back part. • Biceps- in the front section.
Nervous System The central nervous system • The central nervous system is made up of two main parts. • The brain • Spinal cord
Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System • The peripheral nervous system, unlike the central nervous system, is made up of many different parts. It consists of all the neurons extending from the spinal cord.