Understanding the Cardiovascular SystemChapter 4Refers to Heart – Lung Functioning
Sub-Components of the Cardio-respiratory System • Heart • Blood • Blood Vessels • Lungs
Function of Cardio-Respiratory Systems • Primarily to: • Transport and exchange gases(O2 and CO2) • Deliver nutrients to cells • Deliver hormones and nutrients • Removes waste • Balance fluids • Temperature regulation
Anatomical Considerations of the Heart • Size of a closed fist • Located in the mediastium of the chest cavity
Basics Of Heart Anatomy • It is a four chambered structure • Two upper chambers: atria or atrium • Two lower chambers: ventricles • It is divided into right and left sides by muscular tissue known as theseptum
Basics Of Heart Anatomy #2 • By being divided into right and left sides, the heart is able to serve two systems: • Pulmonary • Systemic • Explanation of basic blood flow
Cardiovascular Disease • 60-70 million Americans have one or more forms of CVD
Cardiovascular Disease • 1 million deaths each year • 330 billion dollars
Cardiovascular Disease • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the United States.
Cardiovascular Disease • 2600 Americans die each day from CVD • 1 death every 33 seconds • Claims more lives each year than the next 7 causes of death combined (AHA ’99)
Forms of Cardiovascular Disease(Often preventable and lifestyle related) • Coronary artery disease (CAD or CVD) • Hypertension (high blood pressure) • Cerebral vascular accidents (strokes) • Angina pectoris • Peripheral vascular disease • Valve disease • Rheumatic heart disease • Congenital heart disease • Congestive heart failure
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) • Primary form of heart disease • May be caused by a variety of conditions, however most cases are associated with: • Waxy plaque build-up in the arteries • Atherosclerosis
Cardiovascular Disease • Has anyone in your family had bypass surgery? • Blocked arteries? • Plaque build-up • Related to high cholesterol levels sustained over time • Occurs, primarily, in vessels closest to the heart
Cardiovascular Procedures • Angioplasty • Roto-Blade • Stints • Keyhole Surgery • Radiation • Bypass Surgery (7 yr.average)
CAD Post-Op Patient • What behavioral and dietary changes are suggested for the patient?
Can One Be FIT But Not Healthy? • Personal profile example • Run 3 miles daily • Lift weights • Stretching exercises • Smokes, stress, excessive alcohol, fatty foods, drugs, etc.
Jim Fixx • 36 years old, 215 pounds • 2 pack a day smoker • No regular exercise • Family history of heart disease • father had a heart attack at 35, died at 43 • Began to exercise at age 36 • Ran 60-80 miles per week • Was FIT but not HEALTHY
Coronary Risk Factors • Primary Risk Factors:Factors that have been definitively associated with or directly cause coronary artery disease. • Secondary Risk Factors:Factors believed to contribute to or advance the severity of atheroschlerosis and CAD.
Primary Risk Factors (Alterable) • Smoking • Hypertension (high blood pressure) • High serum cholesterol (hyperlipidemia) • Physical inactivity • Diabetes mellitus • Obesity • (drug use)
Secondary Risk Factors • Stress • Age • Gender (male vs. female) • Family history
Arkansas Stats from the Center for Disease Control/Mortality Rates • Males #2 in deaths from CAD • Males #2 in deaths from lung cancer • Males and Females # 1 in deaths from stroke
Additional Ark. Stats • 1/3 of deaths in AR related to CVD (l998) • 90% of adults report no vigorous activity • 36% do not engage in any physical activity • Arkansans are gaining weight 3 times faster than the rest of the nation • 40% AR youths carry excessive weight
Smoking #1 • The single most important, preventable cause of illness and early death
Smoking #2 • 400,000 related deaths per year • >$50 billion • Cancer, heart disease, respiratory diseases (emphysema) • Cigarette smoking and passive smoke inhalation are highly related to CAD.
Smoking #3 • Smokers have a 70% greater level of coronary risk than nonsmokers. • Magnitude of risk is related to number of cigarettes smoked. • Pipe, cigar, pot • Personal economics of smoking
Secondary Smoke • 53,000annual deaths • For each pack of cigarettes smoked, the non smoker, sharing the same air, will inhale the equivalent of 3 to 5 cigarettes.
Smokeless Tobacco • Chewing tobacco • Overheads
Smoking Benefits?? • Injures the inner lining of the arteries • Increases the risk of blood clotting • Increases the risk of heart attack • Increases risk of sudden death • Allows for consumption of 63 cancer causing chemicals
Smoking Benefits #2 ??? • 87% of lung cancer caused by smoking • Most emphysema and chronic bronchitis caused by smoking • Lowers HDL cholesterol • Increases facial wrinkles • Increases risk of many other diseases • Reduces length of life by as much as 17 years • Depends on amount smoked and years smoked • Stop smoking • Heart disease risk drops in a matter of months • Cancer risk drops slowly and may take 10 years
Hypertension / High Blood Pressure • Blood Pressure: • The driving force that moves blood throughout the body. • The pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries.
Blood Pressure • 120/80 or less is optimal • 120-139/80-89 is Pre-hypertension • 140-159/90-99 is stage 1 • 160/100 or higher is stage 2
Systolic Blood Pressure 120/80 • The highest pressure or value • Occurs during heart contraction phase (ventricular contraction)
Diastolic Blood Pressure 120/80 • The lowest pressure or value • Occurs during heart relaxation phase (resting or refilling stage of the contraction)
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) • A silent killer • 140/90 : considered mild stage of hypertension • Which is more problematic? 140/80 or 130/95 • Potentially leads to stroke • Causes the heart muscle to overwork
Hypertension #2 • Related to stroke / aneurysms • Hypertension may be the result of another health problem
Factors Affecting Blood Pressure • Hypertensive medications • Time of day • Full bladder content • Body posture • Recent intake of caffeine • Nicotine • Alcohol • Recent strenuous activity
Impact of Hypertension • 25% or 50 million Americans are hypertensive • 67% are not treated • 1/2 are unaware of the complication
Factors Contributing To Hypertension • Age • Race • Sodium sensitivity • Chronic alcohol abuse • Oral contraceptives • Sedentary living
Lifestyle Interventions to Maintain or Lower Blood Pressure • Body weight reduction or maintenance • Smoking cessation
How To Lower Blood Pressure • Aerobic exercise • Reduce stress • Reduce cholesterol, sodium, high fat diet (saturated) • Medications
Hyperlipidema / High Serum Cholesterol • Definition of Cholesterol • A type of lipid (fat) found in animal tissues • This fat (Lipid) is insoluble in blood • It binds to proteins (lipoproteins) in order to be transported in the body
Cholesterol: 3 basic facts • Provides for basic functions of the metabolic process • Is manufactured in the liver – non-essential • The body makes additional cholesterol (LDL) from saturated fats
What Is So Bad About Having High Cholesterol Levels?? • High levels lead to a waxy, plaque build-up in the arteries, especially those near the heart. • The result can be increased risk ofCoronary Artery Disease (CAD)
More About Plaque • Affects all of us • May begin as early as 10 years of age • May be genetic • Medications??
Types of Lipoproteins / Types of Cholesterol • LDL • HDL • VLDL
LDL • Low density lipoproteins (BAD) • enhances plaque build up in the arteries • increases with a diet high in saturated and trans-fatty acids (hydrogenated products) • Undesirable, increases risk of CAD
HDL • High density lipoproteins (GOOD) • Offers protection from CAD • May remove plaque from the arteries • Aerobic activity will raise HDL level • Can be raised by consuming small amounts of alcohol daily