Presenters: Chapter 7 – Speaking: A Linguistic Juggling Act
Chapter Preview • Some notes from the author, Snow • The Process of Speaking: The Problem and the Goal • Pairs, Small Groups, and Large Groups • In-class Methods and Tasks (I cut some activities) • Speaking Practice Outside of Class (I cut some activities) • Pronunciation • Correction • Evaluation
NOTE: Common misconception GOOD TEACHING correcting all students' mistakes. For speaking, meaning oral corrections: “Some correction of students’ errors may be helpful, but there is little evidence that correction improves students’ accuracy much. Overcorrection can make students self-conscious and discourage them from speaking.” (Snow, p. 105)
(p. 106) Success as a speaking teacher the ability to create practice opportunities in class. IS
The Process of Speaking: The Problem and the Goal (p106-107) Notes about REAL SPEAKING: • Time is important fast speakers (who are also fast thinkers) will always talk more than others. • Think of your students. Not always the smartest, but the fastest will raise their hand and try to answer questions. • Real speaking communication ability is more important than accuracy.
Pairs, Small Groups and Large Groups (p107-108) IMAGINE: What does a good conversation lesson look like? Problem: Remember, probably, only the fastest students will speak. The teacher is talking the most, so it’s actually more of a listening activity for the students. Even if every student speaks. 50 students / 50 minutes = 1 minute each. Students eagerly raising their hands waiting to speak. NO THEREFORE
Pairs, Small Groups and Large Groups (p107-108 continued) • Group size – make the smallest groups possible considering: • How many students • The space • The activity goal • How much time The SOLUTION… students should work in pairs and small groups as much as possible.
Personal Example • You should think of 4 or 5 personal examples or experiences and add them anywhere you want. It can be about one point or a couple points together. • Don’t make an example for each point AND don’t worry to find one example that matches every point.
In Class Methods and Tasks • p108. Memorization of Material • Memorizing dialogs is good for very-beginning students. It can also be reassuring. • Be careful not to make memorizing the main speaking activity. Not good for communication. • p109. Choral Drill • Students repeat after the teacher. • Can practice pronunciation and intonation, reviewing, or just practice hearing their own voices. Note it’s not communication, at all.
In Class Methods and Tasks • p110. Model-based Dialogs • Students learn behaviors and context from model dialogs; they learn language functions. • It’s not only memorization of words, like mentioned before. • p112. Presentation • Students prepare and practice in advance. They prepare both content and language. • Be careful about time. 10 presentations in a row can be boring for other students. • p112 Role Play • Students practice or make a dialog according to a role. They can choose, or the teacher can give the role.
In Class Methods and Tasks • p113. Survey • Students ask some questions different people. They ask the same questions, so it’s good repetition practice. • Make sure that the questions have a purpose to students. They have a purpose to know the answer. • p114. Interview • Students interview each other. Using roles (talk show host, news reporter) or role-play (someone famous) is good. • Good for intermediate or advanced learners because it’s more in-depth.
Speaking Practice out of Class • p118. Memorization and Recitation • One major advantage Students can practice and check themselves, by themselves. • Note: It’s just memorizing. Not communication. • p118. Dialogs & Role Plays Prepared out of Class • Good practice, but students need a chance perform in class. • Be careful performances could get boring if it takes too long. • p118 Small Group Discussion out of Class • Students manage their own talks and discussion. • Of course, it’s hard to speak English with friends AND the teacher can’t remind/control it either. • Give students a specific task to complete (ex. answer questions, make discussion questions, make a list, make a poster, etc.)
Pronunciationp120. Expectations and Goals MANY students have expectations and goals to have pronunciation like a native speaker. Adults (including late-adolescents)can’tcompletely reform their pronunciation, from the first language. Students have to hear and practice the target pronunciation a lot (not 2 hours a week). In international context, it’s more likely that people will speak English as a lingua franca (=common language; eg. a Brazilian and a German speaking English.) If you sound like a native, people expect you to act like a native. If you sound native, but don’t act native, people might think you are rude or strange. Some are waiting for their pronunciation to be perfect before speaking. What if it never happens? CONSIDER: • Possibly • Desirability • Danger
Pronunciationp121. Aspects of Pronunciation PRONUCIATION correct production of sounds. Accurate pronunciation of sounds – is a combination of ability and knowledge. What is the sound? & How do I make it? • Syllable stress – Every word has one stressed syllable. You need to know which one. • Sentence word stress – Key words in a sentence are stressed. It can change the meaning of sentences. • Sentence intonation – can show if the sentence is a statement, question, or suggestion. • Enunciation – is speaking loudly and clearly. Usually students who lack confidence don’t enunciate and are difficult to understand.
Pronunciationp122. Teaching Pronunciation • Listening and Pronunciation • If students aren’t listening correctly, they won’t pronounce correctly. • Take some time to train listening skills. (eg. listen and circle the correct answer) • Modeling Pronunciation • Teacher, speak slow and clear, and make sure students can hear you well. • Check that students copy sounds, word stress, and sentence stress. • Build longer sentences up from the end. • Performance of a Text • Students practice pronunciation from written text (from reading). • Only comment about pronunciation, not grammar or vocabulary. • Accuracy in Free Conversation • This part is hard for the teacher to control. Students need to manage themselves. Eventually, they need to be able to hear their own pronunciation.
NOTE FROM LAURA:Correction Remember: Students WILL SPEAK with mistakes before they can LEARN to speak without them. They can’t do it perfectly the first time… So give them lots of practice and mistakes are OKAY!!!
Correction (p.124-125) According to research. REMEMBER: Correcting students as they are speaking, doesn’t really work. WHEN? You should correct when errors interfere with communication. • Errors that will make students sound rude, offensive, or ignorant. • Get out. (very direct and sounds rude) Get out, please. (still a bit rude) Please go outside. (better) • Frequent or patterned errors. • Where are you going? I’m going *to pass the market. Then, I’m going to go home. Don’t correct. (The student understands future tense, and says it correctly two times. He uses the verb, pass, wrong, but everyone can understand, so it’s not a big mistake for now (for speaking in front of everyone). • Errors about a rule that you just taught. • I *waked up at 6:00am today. I woke up at 6:00am today. (This is mistake about past and irregular. Did you teach both? You can do a light correction) Which is the next topic.
Correction (p.124-125) How to do it? There are some different ways to correct: • Corrected repetition (also called a recast or recasting) • Most common type of correction by native-speaker teacher. • ex. Student: “I want eat cake.” Teacher: “Ah, you want to eat cake.” • It’s implicit feedback, which means that the student ONLY notices if he/she is REALLY paying attention it’s not for showing off mistakes. • This type of correction is for the teacher to correct, WITHOUT STOPPING THE ACTIVITY or making students nervous. • Repeat up to the error… • ex. Student: “And then I eated the food.” Teacher: “And then I…” • This is a focused error correction, and should be used when you are focusing on something specific, like something you just taught. Don’t delay speaking corrections. That means don’t wait a long time. If some time has passed, forget about it.
Evaluation Give some points! Evaluation and Backwash – If you want students to study and practice speaking, you should evaluate it. p127. Interviews – It is one of the best ways to evaluate speaking skills. • Preparing for the Interview • Decide what you want students to do. (eg. grammar, pronunciation, creativity, etc.) • Make a list of topics or tasks that you want students to do during the interview. • Make a rubric or a points-sheet to give the score based on criteria from step 1. • Conducting the Interview • Allow enough time for each student (about 5 minutes). It takes a long time. • Prepare a guideline for you and ALSO FOR STUDENTS. Tell them in advance. • Warm-up: greetings, small talk Easy stuff so the student feel comfortable. • Body: Main focus (eg. describe a picture, report or explain about something, role play) Let students talk, be encouraging. If student can’t do something, change topic for them. • Wind-down: End with easy questions, farewell You want ALL students to feel okay after speaking. (Example on p. 126)
Evaluation p127-128. Pair or Small Group Assessment For large classes, Interviews may not be possible. Steps for Small Group Assessment: • Design one or more testing tasks for pairs of small groups. • Design a scoring system you can use as you listen to the pair or group. • Let students know what the test format will be. • Organize student into pairs or small groups and schedule a time for their test. • When they arrive, have them choose one of the tasks randomly (from a hat). • During the test, take notes, and assign a grade (or tentative grade).
Evaluation p128. Listening and Writing Quizzes • Sometimes even small group assessment isn’t possible. • In this case, you can ask students a question or give a task and students write their response or dialog. • Two options: • Teacher can ask questions orally. Students write the answers. • Students have to write a dialog according to your instructions. (ex. You go to the restaurant. Write a greeting. Order a main dish, side dish, and a drink. Make one complaint. End the conversation. Make at least 6 lines of dialog.) • Be careful, writing is NOT SPEAKING!! • It’s an indirect measure, but at least it’s a productive skill. Students can write what they WOULD say.
Practice Listening Activity OR Discussion Questions • Note to presenters: • You have a choice to make discussion questions….. AND/OR • You can demonstrate a listening activity in the class. YOU ARE THE TEACHER and the class will be your students. Don’t explain what you would do. You have to teach like a real class. • NOTE: It should be a short and simple activity, do not prepare elaborate materials. It’s just a closing to your presentation.