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GIS Lecture 2 Map Design PowerPoint Presentation
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GIS Lecture 2 Map Design

GIS Lecture 2 Map Design

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GIS Lecture 2 Map Design

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  1. GIS Lecture 2Map Design

  2. Outline • Vector GIS • Graphic Elements • Colors • Graphical Hierarchy • Choropleth Maps • Map Layers • Scale Thresholds • Hyperlinks

  3. Vector GIS

  4. Graphic Features on the World

  5. Turned into a GIS Map

  6. Vector GIS Point Points Line Lines Polygon Polygons

  7. Points Data Attached to Points

  8. Points Same data displayed as two different points Burglaries Drug Calls

  9. Queries and Restrictions • Restricts the features to a specific subset

  10. Lines Highways, Major Roads Street Centerlines Curbs

  11. Polygons Point Green Spaces Line Buildings Polygon Census Blocks

  12. Graphic Elements

  13. Jacques Bertin Visualization Information “What should be printed to facilitate “communication”, that is, to tell others what we know without a loss of information” -Jacques Bertin, Paris, February 1983

  14. Value Hue More Value Size Bertin’s Graphic Variables Shape Texture Saturation

  15. Value Hue Shape More Value Saturation Shape Symbols Size Texture

  16. Shape (Point) Guidelines • Use simple shapes • Use point markers that have boundary lines and solid-color fill for important points

  17. Simple, Solid Points

  18. Boundary Lines

  19. Value Hue More Value Saturation Size Size Shape Texture

  20. Size • Make the differences in size as large as possible

  21. Value Hue More Value Saturation Texture Shape Size Texture

  22. Texture • Black and White Prints • Polygons • Large Areas

  23. Value Hue More Value Saturation Value Shape Size Texture

  24. Value • Increase/Decrease Contrast • The greater the difference in value between an object and its background, the greater the contrast.

  25. Value • By creating a pattern of dark to light values, even when the objects are equal in shape and size, it leads the eye in the direction of dark to light

  26. Value

  27. Value Hue Orientation Shape Texture More Value Saturation Size Value

  28. More Value

  29. Value Hue Orientation Shape Texture More Value Saturation Size Hue

  30. Color Hues Each of individual color is a hue Colors have meaning (i.e. cool colors, warm colors, political meanings) -Cool colors calming -Warm colors exciting -Cool colors appear smaller than warm colors and they visually recede on the page so red can visually overpower and stand out over blue even if used in equal amounts. www.colormatters.com www.colorbrewer.org

  31. red orange violet yellow blue green Color Wheel

  32. Color Wheel • Harmony • two adjacent hues red orange violet yellow blue green

  33. Color Wheel • Harmony • two adjacent hues red orange violet yellow blue green

  34. Color Wheel • Harmony • two adjacent hues red orange violet yellow blue green

  35. Color Wheel • Harmony • two adjacent hues • Contrast • two hues with one hue skipped in between red orange violet yellow blue green

  36. Color Wheel • Harmony • two adjacent hues • Contrast • two hues with one hue skipped in between red orange violet yellow blue green

  37. Color Wheel • Harmony • two adjacent hues • Contrast • two hues with one hue skipped in between red orange violet yellow blue green

  38. Color Wheel • Harmony • two adjacent hues • Contrast • two hues with one hue skipped in between red orange violet yellow blue green

  39. Non-Contrasting vs. Contrasting

  40. Orientation Shape Texture Size Saturation Value Hue More Value Saturation

  41. Saturation

  42. Saturation • Customize the Properties…of a layer

  43. Double-Ended Scales • Extremes Emphasized • Example: gains or loss over time • purple and orange contrast • white center is ground purple white orange

  44. Change Map Example

  45. Color Spot White background allows yellow color spot to be visualized

  46. Color Spot Ramps

  47. Graphical Hierarchy

  48. Graphical Hierarchy • Goal • direct attention toward or away from available Information

  49. Graphical Hierarchy • Goal • direct attention toward or away from available Information • Figure-Ground • visual separation of a scene into recognizable figuresand inconspicuous background (ground)

  50. Graphical Hierarchy • Ground • larger of two contrasting areas