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The New Republic

The New Republic

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The New Republic

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  1. The New Republic An Age of Political Passion, 1789-1800

  2. Yes, I am George Mason and I am somewhat happy with the Bill of Rights. Ha Ha I beat you Anti-Federalist James Monroe!!! Now, the Constitution will be more Fed. Friendly!!! Launching the New Government • Choosing the 1st President • Electoral College 2/4/1789 • Washington President • Adams Vice-President • Completing the Constitution • James Madison-VA (F) • Recognized the political necessity of amendments • 12 went to States/10 Bill of Rights • Cured most fears of Anti-Federalists • Filling Out the Branches of Government • Constitution doesn’t mention a cabinet for executive but GW puts one in place establishing precedent of advisors for a president • Sec of State: Jefferson- Republican • Sec of Treasury: Hamilton-Federalist • Sec of War: Knox • Attorney Gen: Edmund Randolph • Chief Justice: John Jay • Gdub’s choices included a wide section of the political spectrum • Anti-Federalist feared that the Const. created a large, expensive, and bureaucratic • 350 total for the Federal Govt. • Couple of buildings near Wall Street TJ you only get only 5 employees.

  3. Hamilton’s Ambitious Program • Hamilton’s Vision for the New Republic • America a powerful nation w/ strong government and strong commercial economy (like Great Britain) • Very controversial views: conflict w/ Anti-Federalist & Madison & TJ • Elitist who view democracy w/ suspicion. • Class divisions • Must have ties to rich & powerful that most be tied to the new govt. • Successful lawyer & powerful friends in NY merchant business & influential politician • Hamilton's Financial Plan • Congress requested report on new Economy • “Report on Public Credit” • $11 Million to Foreign / $ 63 Million to Citizens • Assumption of the State's Debt • Consolidate State and Fed debt (Ties them to the new govt) • Buy old govt. money (notes) and replace with new notes at equal or better value (create better credit) • Sell new govt. bonds (create int’l credit) • Whiskey Tax • Wanted a permanently funded national debt • Most Controversial issue was the speculation in the paper notes (Poor sold notes early to speculators who would benefitted with Ham’s plan) • Dinner Compromise at Jefferson’s Home • Capital move to Potomac River in exchange of Hamilton's Plan

  4. Hamilton’s Ambitious Program • Madison's Opposition • His desire to preserve the constitutional system • His vision of republican agrarian society differed than Ham’s powerful merchant state • Beginning of Parties • Federalist # 10 vs. “A Candid State of Parties” • Two Parties Republican Party vs. Anti-Republican Party (Federalist)

  5. Hamilton’s Ambitious Program • Ham’s Report on Bank of the United States • Bolster confidence in govt. securities (only 3 private banks), loans, and stable currency • Govt & private owned • Tie wealthy to new govt. • Opposition: Loose interpretation vs. Strict interpretation Madison = Strict “spirit of 1787” & protect state’s & people’s rights Hamilton = Loose “necessary and proper” & implied powers • Still a controversial issue!!!! • Federalist controlled Congress & Washington did not veto: B.U.S. Charter created • Ham’s Report on Mint • Federal Currency • Ham’s Report on Manufactures • Protective tariff to protect infant US industries • George Washington sided almost always with Hamilton and against Madison and Jefferson

  6. Hamilton’s Ambitious Program • Jefferson vs. Hamilton: Contrasting Visions of the Republic

  7. Conflicts at Home and Abroad • French Revolution in America • Republicans supported the Revolution • Federalists denounced the excess • Adams vs. Clinton: A Contest for VP • Both parties unified behind Gdub but went after other Federalist, Adams • Division begins Anti-Fed George Clinton carried South

  8. Conflicts at Home and Abroad • Diplomatic Controversies and Triumphs • British Problems • US vessels no longer under British protection • British remained in NW Forts & stirring up trouble with Indians • Confiscated our ships, cargo, and men trading with France • Jay’s Treaty of 1795 • G.B. compensate for confiscation & vacate forts (Didn’t do both) • Denied US right to be neutral and trade w/ France • Republicans were outraged with generous terms • Best case scenario: Jay negotiated with Britain from a position of weakness • Spanish Problems • Controlled Mississippi River & N.O. • Pinckney Treaty 1795 • Access to River and New Orleans • Pinckney negotiated with Spain from a position of strength (Spain feared that US wanted Florida!!!)

  9. Conflicts at Home and Abroad • Violence along the Frontier • Pan-Indian War along frontier • Two major defeats for US Army and failure to secure peace • Gen. Mad Anthony Wayne defeated the tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794 • Treaty Of Greenville Indians out of Ohio River Valley for settlement • Whiskey Rebellion-1794 • Resentment against Hamilton's tax on whiskey • Backcountry farmers turned grain into whiskey for transportation and for profit • Peaceful turns violence (500 march on tax collector’s house/two killed and house burned, oh here we go again!!!) • Gdub sent militia to put down rebellion after failed attempts (150 arrested/two treasons and pardoned)

  10. Stormy Presidency of John Adams • Washington’s Farewell • Sets precedent by not seeking a third term • Sets precedent of peaceful handing over of power • Election of 1796 • Federalist-John Adams & Pinckney • Republicans-Jefferson & Burr • Washington’s Farewell Address • Warned against political parties and ‘foreign entanglements’ • Set a tone of ‘isolationism’ for the next 100 years!

  11. Stormy Presidency of John Adams • John Adams as President “Big shoes to fill” Really!!!” • Thomas Jefferson VP due to original Constitution not predicting the rise of parties (1st Pres/2nd VP) • Hamilton had attempted to unseat Adams (Federalist divided) • XYZ Affair and Quasi-War with France • Crisis was reaching a head with France over British favoritism • France recalled ambassadors • Seized our ships that traded w/GB • Adams sent diplomats to negotiate peace • French Directory required a $250,000 bribe before talking, $12 million loan and Adams to apologize • Galvanized support to declare war on France/Adams resisted pressure from Hamilton's cronies • Undeclared Naval War/Quasi-War 1798-1800 • Adams created new Department of Navy • Tripled the size of army/ Washington w/ Hamilton as aide (controversial) VS.

  12. Stormy Presidency of John Adams “No Stamp Act, No Sedition, no Alien Bills, no Land Tax (to pay for new army): downfall to the Tyrants of America, peace and retirement to the President, long live the Vice-President” • Alien and Sedition Acts • Protect America from the danger of foreign and domestic subversion • Federalist viewpoint • Alien Acts Parts 1-3 Directed against Aliens/made it more difficult to become citizen/eased deportation • Sedition Act- Directed against US citizens: illegal to speak against policies of government (Prez and Congress, but not VP) • Federalists targeted 25 individuals ALL Republican sympathizers (printers, politicians, and public figures) • Republican view point • Alien Parts 1-3- Weakened Republican voter base…French and Irish Immigrants • Sedition Act- Aimed at weakening free speech of anti-Federalists and their election opportunities • Madison & Jefferson respond with Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • Jefferson introduced that states could nullify unconstitutional laws. • State’s Rights Theory • Federalist New England voted down and stated that Federal Courts have the final say not states on the constitutionality of laws You get a $400 fine and 18 months for that one…

  13. Stormy Presidency of John Adams • Disputed Election of 1800 • Jefferson defeats Adams in election of 1800 because Federalist had raised taxes to prepare for a war with France that never came…Feds also had split over war with France and didn’t fully support Adams…Alien and Sedition were incredibly unpopular • Federalist Legacy • Hamilton's financial policies/loose interpretation • Precedents of Washington’s administration • NO WAR with France • Preserved democratic gains of the Revolution • Opposition to Hamiltonian Federalists created first two-party system • John Adams steps aside • Friends burry the old hatchet