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CHAPTER 10 PowerPoint Presentation

CHAPTER 10

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CHAPTER 10

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  1. CHAPTER 10 WEATHERING AND SOIL FORMATION

  2. Why are river rocks round? • Tumbling in running water

  3. What is weathering? • BREAK DOWN OF ROCK INTO SMALLER PIECES

  4. Mechanical Weathering • Breaking rock apart by physically tearing it apart

  5. List 6 agents of mechanical weathering • Ice • Wind • Water • Gravity • Plants • Animals

  6. ICE WEDGING • ICE EXPANDS AND CAUSES CRACKS TO WIDEN

  7. ICE WEDGING • file://\\hsa005\staff_docs$\wfrye\My Documents\Holt Middle\student\ch10\sec01\vc01\hz510_01_v01fs.htm • http://www.g&bih=636

  8. ABRASION • Rocks grind against each other

  9. Ventifact • Vent – wind • Fact – to make • So, “Wind made”

  10. A ventifact

  11. Toadstool rock

  12. “Root-pry” Plant roots will cause cracks to enlarge

  13. Animal activity • Burrowing exposes bedrock • Acids from wastes will chemically weather the rock

  14. Exfoliation • When rock layers “peel off” • Occurs when weight is removed from on top of rock layers

  15. What minerals are most affected by weathering? • Those that form at the highest temperature

  16. What minerals are least affected by weathering? • Those that form at the lowest temperature • Ex. Quartz

  17. CHEMICAL WEATHERING • BREAKDOWN OF ROCK BY CHEMICAL MEANS

  18. CHEMICAL WEATHERING • file://\\hsa005\staff_docs$\wfrye\My Documents\Holt Middle\student\ch10\sec01\vc02\hz510_01_v02fs.htm

  19. ACID PRECIPITATION • Formed by pollutants mixing with water vapor in the atmosphere

  20. What acid is formed in groundwater? • Carbonic – Carbon dioxide mixing with water • Same acid as in soda pop – “carbonated water”

  21. Hydrolysis • Chemical action of water on minerals

  22. Calcite • Easily dissolved by acids • Main ingredient of limestone

  23. How do caves form? • When acidified groundwater dissolves limestone

  24. Karst topography • Named after the Kars Plateau in Yugoslavia

  25. Karst topography • Refers to a region with many sinkholes, lost rivers, underground drainage

  26. Karst topography • The underlying bedrock is limestone (or easily dissolved minerals)

  27. How does a sinkhole form? • Forms when a cave collapses

  28. Need a parking spot?

  29. Idiot in action!!

  30. Stalactite • Hang from ceiling (“C”)

  31. Stalagmite • Grows from floor (“G”)

  32. Column • Forms when a stalactite and stalagmite meet

  33. Lichen • Refers to an algae plant and a fungus

  34. A lichen

  35. Another lichen

  36. Symbiosis • Refers to organisms living together for the mutual benefit of both

  37. OXIDATION • CHEMICAL REACTION OF AN ELEMENT WITH OXYGEN

  38. Rust • Oxidation of iron • Mars is red because of the iron oxide in its surface rock

  39. Oxidation • file://hsa005/staff_docs1$/wfrye/My%20Documents/Holt%20Middle/student/ch10/sec03/vc00/hz510_03_v00nv.htm

  40. Section 2 Rates of Weathering

  41. DIFFERENTIAL WEATHERING • Different rocks weather at different rates

  42. DIFFERENTIAL WEATHERING • EXAMPLE: • DEVILS TOWER p. 284 • file://\\hsa005\staff_docs$\wfrye\My Documents\Holt Middle\student\ch10\sec02\vc00\hz510_02_v00fs.htm

  43. LARGE ROCKS wear down slower than smaller pieces file://\\hsa005\staff_docs$\wfrye\My Documents\Holt Middle\student\ch10\sec02\vc01\hz510_02_v01fs.htm

  44. Small pieces weather faster • more surface area =faster weathering • Ice cube vs. crushed ice

  45. How does climate affect weathering? • Hot and dry – SLOW • Warm, humid - FAST

  46. How does elevation affect weathering? • High – Fast • Low – Slower • Steep slopes - Fast