Why do we classify things? • To organize • To see relationships between organisms
How do we classify things? • By grouping things according to similar traits or characteristics
How do we classify organisms? • Taxonomy – science of classification • We classify organisms into 5Kingdoms • Monera, Protists, Fungi, Animal, Plant
What are the levels of classification? • Kingdom - Largest group – fewest traits in common • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species - Smallest group – all traits in common
How can we remember this? • Kingsize Potato Chips Often Form Grease Stains • King Philip Came Over From Germany Swimming
What is a scientific name? • Name used to identify an organism • Binomial– 2 names • Example:
What is Binomial Nomenclature? • Two Name – Naming System • Genus and Species Names • First letter of each name: • Genus – Capitalize • Species – lower case
What are the Five Kingdoms? • Monera • Protists • Fungi • Animal • Plant
Summary • Why do scientists classify things? • How are organisms classified? • What is a scientific name? • What is binomial nomenclature? • What are the 7 levels of classification? • What are the 5 Kingdoms? • What is the science of classification?
What is a Monera? • A single-celled organism which lacks a Nucleus!
What are some Monerans? • Some Examples of monerans are: • Bacteria • Blue-green bacteria
How are Monera Named? • Monera are named based on their shape. There are three shapes • Round – “cocci” • Rod shaped – “bacilli” • Spiral – “spirilli”
How are Monerans helpful? • Monerans are helpful in many ways: • Decomposers in the environment. • Feed on dead organisms and wastes. • Produce foods like yogurt. • Help in digestion.
How are Monerans Harmful? • Some monerans can be harmful by: • Causing disease. • Make foods spoil.
What is a Protist? • A protist is a Single-celled organism which has a nucleus! • There are 2 groups: • Algae and • Protozoa.
What are Algae? • Algae are Plant-like protists • They can photosynthesize. • Some examples of Algae are: • Diatoms and • Spyrogyra.
What are Protozoa? • Animal-like protists. • Protozoa can move and must injest food to survive. • Some examples of Protozoa are: • Amoeba • Paramecium and • Euglena.
How do Protists move? • Protists move using a few different techniques: • Pseudopods – False feet. • Flagella – Long hair, whiplike. • Cilia – Small hairs • Some have No movement and use air and water to get around.
How do Protists Reproduce? • Protists reproduce through Mitosis (fission).
How do Protists get energy? • Protists get their energy by doing respiration in their Mitochondria.
How do Protists get nutrients? • Protists get food and water through transport (passive/active) across the cell membrane.
How do Protists excrete wastes? • Wastes are released through the cell membrane.
What are Fungi? • Single-celled (Yeast) or • Multi-celled (mushrooms, mold) organisms. • Have Nucleus and cell walls. • NO Chloroplasts!
What are some examples of Fungi? • Yeast • Mold • Mushrooms
How do Fungi Eat? • Fungi release digestive enzymes into their food source through hyphae (hair-like “root” structures) and digested material is then absorbed.
How do Fungi Reproduce? • Yeast – do budding (Mitosis) • Mushroom and Mold – Produce spores
What are Plants? • Multi-cellular organisms. • Can Photosynthesize (make their own food). • Have cell walls. • Can Not move.
Plants Contain many specialized tissues/organs. • What are the Parts? • Roots – Anchor the plant, absorb water, store food. • Leaves – Produce food through Photosynthesis. • Stems – support plant. • Bark – protects stem cells. • Vascular tissue – transports food and water.
How do Plants Reproduce? • Asexually - through vegetative propagation (root and Leaf cuttings). • Sexually – with cones and flowers.
What is an animal? • Multi-cellular organism. • Can move. • Can Not make own food.
How are animals Classified? • Animals are classified into two main groups. • Invertebrates and • Vertebrates.
Two Main groups of Animals. • Invertebrates – Lacks an internal skeleton (No Backbone). • Vertebrates – Have an internal skeleton (Have Backbone). • Vertebrates can be either warm or cold-blooded.
Vertebrate Catagories • Cold-blooded – Use environment to get body heat. • Ex: Snails, bees, jellyfish, worms. • Warm-blooded – Can produce own body heat and maintain constant body temperature. • Ex: Birds, Mammals (Humans).
What is a Virus? • A Virus is a non-living particle which contains material for reproduction (DNA).
Is it Alive? • NO, because they do not perform all of the life functions.
What do Viruses do? • Viruses reproduce themselves with the help of a host cell. • The virus duplicates inside the host cell. • The host cell then bursts and dies.
How do Viruses cause disease? • Disease comes from the infected and dead cells. • Viruses are considered Parasites because they damage host cells.