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Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury. By: Erin Engnell. Definition of TBI.

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Traumatic Brain Injury

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  1. Traumatic Brain Injury By: Erin Engnell

  2. Definition of TBI • “An insult to the brain, not of degenerative or congenital nature caused by an external physical force that may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness, which results in an impairment of cognitive abilities or physical functioning. It can also result in the disturbance of behavioral or emotional functioning.”

  3. Levels of TBI • Mild TBI • Glascow Coma Scale score 13-15 • Moderate TBI • Glascow Coma Scale score 9-12 • Severe TBI • Glascow Coma Scale score 8 or less

  4. Causes • An outside force impacts the head causing the brain to move • A direct blow to the head • A rapid acceleration and deceleration of the head

  5. Pie Chart of TBI Causes

  6. Incidence Rates • Currently 5.3 million Americans are living with a disability as a result of TBI (about 2% of US population) • 1.5 million Americans sustain a TBI each year • More than 50,000 people die each year from TBI (22% of people with TBI) • 80,000 Americans obtain a long-term disability following TBI every year • of firearm related TBI’s are a result of someone trying to attempt suicide • The risk of TBI in men is twice the risk in women • Every 21 seconds, one person in the U.S. sustains a TBI

  7. Comparing TBI

  8. Symptoms of a person who might have TBI • Dilated or unequal size of pupils • Vision changes • Respiratory failure • Paralysis, difficulty moving body parts, weakness, poor coordination • Vomiting • Headache • Confusion • Ringing in the ears, or changes in ability to hear • Trouble with balance • Difficulty with thinking skills • Difficulty speaking, slurred speech

  9. Possible Characteristics of a person with a Traumatic Brain Injury • Cognitive • Physical • Emotional

  10. Instructional Ideas • Be PATIENT! • Transition plans for the student • Structure and routines • Do not set specific expectations for achievement • Be supportive and responsive to changing needs of students with TBI • Technology varies because TBI is a very wide spectrum disorder

  11. Prevention in Schools • Playground safety • School Bus safety • Pedestrian safety • Youth violence

  12. Parts of the Brain

  13. Right or Left Brain • Injuries to the right side of the brain • Creativity impairment • Injuries to the left side of the brain • Intellectual impairment • Diffuse Injuries (both sides of brain)

  14. $ $ $ Money!!!! • 48.3 billion dollars annually spent in the U.S. for patients with TBI • Hospitalization accounts for 31.7 billion dollars • Fatal brain injuries cost the U.S. 16.6 billion dollars $ $ $ $ $

  15. Resources for Teachers • Brain Injury Association of Illinois • http://www.biausa.org/Illinois/bia.htm • Brain Injury Association of America • www.biausa.org • TBI Information Center • www.tbiinfocenter.com • Children With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Parent's Guide (The Special Needs Collection) by Lisa Schoenbrodt • I'll Carry the Fork!: Recovering a Life After Brain Injury by Kara L. Swanson

  16. Bibliography • Brain Injury Association of America • www.biausa.org • TBI Information Center • www.tbiinfocenter.com • NIH Consensus Statement “Rehabilitation of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury” • Including Students with Special Needs By: Marilyn Friend • Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Teens Government Publication

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