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MANIFEST DESTINY 1870’s – 1890’s Period 6 (1865-1898) PowerPoint Presentation
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MANIFEST DESTINY 1870’s – 1890’s Period 6 (1865-1898)

MANIFEST DESTINY 1870’s – 1890’s Period 6 (1865-1898)

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MANIFEST DESTINY 1870’s – 1890’s Period 6 (1865-1898)

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  1. MANIFEST DESTINY 1870’s – 1890’s Period 6 (1865-1898) Key Concept 6.2The migrations that accompanied industrialization transformed both urban and rural areas of the US and caused dramatic social and cultural change.

  2. 1872

  3. PEOPLE OF THE AMERICAN WEST During the Industrial Revolution American Indians of the West 250,000 west of the Mississippi Importance of horses (Spanish) and buffalo (nomadic) to AmInds Indian Removal Act (1830’s Movement) ‘member this? Fort Laramie Treaty Guaranteed safe settler travel along Oregon Trail for “forever” defined AmInd lands. Hispanic West Held some Spanish cultural characteristics; Influence of Catholic missions SW gained from Mexican-American War (1846-48) Hispanics become part of large working class

  4. PEOPLE OF THE AMERICAN WEST During the Industrial Revolution The Chinese Gold Rush (1849) and need for RR workers and miners sparked mass immigration Largest non-European ethnicity in California ‘member this? Welcomed at first, until became job competition “Yellow Peril” 1. 2. 3. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Migration from the East Held some Spanish cultural characteristics; Influence of Catholic missions SW gained from Mexican-American War (1846-48) Hispanics become part of large working class

  5. TRANSFORMATION OF THE AMERICAN WEST AND ITS CULTURE During the Industrial Revolution Disruption of the RRs Negative impact on AmInds Lands and Buffalo RRs selling land rights for settlement and mining RRs largest and most dangerous occupation Promotes national market; a new way to access Asian markets

  6. TRANSFORMATION OF THE AMERICAN WEST AND ITS CULTURE During the Industrial Revolution Cowboy’s Frontier (1870’s – 1880’s) Growing population creates need for meat and new occupation – the cowboy. Vast open lands supports large herds; cattle drives to get to “cow towns.” Cowboy ends with low beef prices and barbed wire fence. “get rich quick” The Miner’s Frontier Developed miner towns; diverse population Anarchy over land/mining rights The Farmers’ Frontier New challenges fighting mother nature New machinery: mechanization of farming ‘member this? Homestead Act (1862)

  7. AMERICAN INDIANS: LAST STAND Broken Federal Treaties and Promises Lack of respect of AmInd sovereignty and culture Can AmInds assimilate into Am culture? ‘member this? Worcester v. Georgia (1832) The Commerce Clause: Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution; Give Congress the power “to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.”

  8. AMERICAN INDIANS: LAST STAND American Indian Wars (1870’s-1890) Little Big Horn (1876) Discovery of gold in Black Hills White settlers v. Lakota and Cheyenne Army Cavalry General “Custer’s Last Stand” Geronimo Surrenders (1886) A 30 year fight with US Army/white settlers ends when Apache Chief Geronimo surrenders. Wounded Knee (1890) Last of the great AmInd wars Ghost Dance spreads; promise from Messiah to defeat white settlers Misinterpretation of Dance prompts action by US Calvary; violence; defeat of Sioux. Nez Pez Chief Joseph (1840-1904) “I will fight no more forever.”

  9. Mother Nature Taxes Mechanization

  10. Assimilationists: Strategy to end AmInd culture Reformers advocated formal education, job training and conversion to Christianity. Ex: Carlise Indian School, Pennsylvania Dawes Severalty Act (1887) To “civilize” AmInds by breaking up tribal organizations. Helen Hunt Jackson (1881) Divided tribal lands into 160 acres; given to families Indians Defeats Harvard Jim Thorpe Carlise Football (1909) Given citizenship if families stayed on the land for 25 years and “adopted habits of civilized life.” Builds sympathy of AmInd; and support for assimilation. Coach Glenn Scobey Warner (1907)

  11. AMERICAN INDIANS: LAST STAND Oklahoma “Indian Territory” Land Rushed (1889-1890’s) “Far and Away” Trailer “Far and Away” Land Rush

  12. THE CLOSING OF THE FRONTIER The US Census Bureau Declares the Frontier “Closed” The line dividing the frontier from civilization no longer existed Frederick Jackson Turner American Historian (1861-1932) Essay: “The Frontier in American History” (1893) Frontier shaped Am identity independent, self-reliant, optimistic The West was a “social leveler”