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Europe and the World

Europe and the World

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Europe and the World

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  1. New Encounters, 1500-1800 Chapter 14 Europe and the World John 3:16

  2. Introduction • Many Europeans were not satisfied with addressing domestic issues and began to take long voyages for discovery and adventure • Magellan discovered the Strait of Magellan which took him from the Atlantic to the Pacific John 3:16

  3. Introduction (cont) • Magellan’s crew went through many hardships (not uncommon) before arriving at the Philippines • Magellan was killed by the natives but is still remembered as the first person to circumnavigate the globe • Only one of five ships he started with returned to Spain John 3:16

  4. Introduction (cont) • Explorers like Magellan and their voyages marked the beginning of a new era • Effected all peoples of the world • Led to radical changes in the political, economic and cultural life of the entire world John 3:16

  5. Introduction (cont) • Between 1500 and 1800, European power engulfed the world • Europeans established colonies • Spread laws, religion, and cultures • In island regions, they firmly established rule • In Africa and Asia, they had large impact on local peoples John 3:16

  6. Age of Expansion--Crucial • Transition from agrarian to commercial and industrial capitalistic system • Expansion also led to contacts with other peoples that brought about the history of the 16 century and beyond John 3:16

  7. Western Civilization expands with dynamic and ruthless energy. By the 16th century, Portugal, Spain, the Dutch Republic, England and France were raised to prominence. This was the age of expansion. It moved Europe from an agrarian to a commercial and industrial capitalistic system. European established new and long lasting contacts with other peoples ON THE BRINK OF A NEW WORLD John 3:16

  8. The Motives • Fantastic lands • Economic Motives • Religious Zeal John 3:16

  9. Fantastic Lands • Europeans were long attracted to discovery • Much literature about different lands • The idea of adventure and discovery of the truth • Curiosity about the mythology of other lands John 3:16

  10. Fantastic Lands • The Travels of John Mandeville • Spoke of 30 foot giants • Spoke of man-eating people • Mysterious Christian kingdoms • Mandeville had never traveled there John 3:16

  11. Economic Motives • Expanding the economic themes of the Renaissance, merchants, adventurers, and government officials were interested in direct route to the East -Spices -Precious metals -New areas of trade • Arab Intermediaries were expensive John 3:16

  12. Economic Motives • Mongol conquests of the Muslims in the 13th century opened the door for Europeans to travel east • The Polos of Venice: Niccolo, Maffeo, and Niccolo’s son, Marco • Traveled to the court of Mongol leader, Khubilia Khan • Marco’s experiences in Travels John 3:16

  13. Economic Motives • The conquests of the Ottoman Turks and the breakdown of the Mongol Empire closed the door over land • Europeans now became interested in reaching eastern land by sea • Christopher Columbus has copy of Marco Polo’s Travels when his Atlantic vision of a voyage began John 3:16

  14. Economic Motives • One Spanish conquistador explained why he went to the new world, to “served God and His Majesty, to give light to those who were in the darkness, and to grow rich, as all men desire to do.” John 3:16

  15. Religious Zeal • A crusading mentality, particularly with Spain and Portugal, to bring Christianity to the “heathens” • Prince Henry, the Navigator, said to be motivated by “his great desire to make increase in the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ and bring him to all the souls that should be saved” John 3:16

  16. Religious Zeal • Hernan Cortez, conqueror of Mexico, saw it as his duty to instruct the natives in the “holy Catholic faith” • Spiritual and secular affairs both played a part in the desire to conquer new lands • Money, glory, intellectual curiosity, and spirit of adventure all played a role as well John 3:16

  17. The Means • Money • Maps • Ships and Sailing John 3:16

  18. Money • Growth of central monarchies during Renaissance increased authority and resources • Permitted nations to turn their energies beyond their borders John 3:16

  19. Three Major Countries • France—invasion of Italy • Portugal—going abroad • Spain—both Europe and beyond • Wealth and technology enables three countries to look beyond borders John 3:16

  20. Maps • Portolani (charts) of medieval navigators and mathematicians in 13th and 14th centuries were better than maps • More details of coastal regions and distances • Drawn of flat scale—no consideration for earth’s curve • Good for short journeys only John 3:16

  21. Maps • When seafarers began to venture away from coasts • knowledge of the world’s shape increased • By end of 15th century, maps were fairly accurate • Travel risks had to be taken before quality maps were available John 3:16

  22. Ptolemy • Astronomer from second century • Showed world as sphere with three major land masses -Europe -Asia -Africa • Underestimated circumference of earth and size of oceans John 3:16

  23. Ptolemy • Ptolemy’s Geography containing world map became available in 1477 • Known to Arab geographers by 8th century • Latin translation not made until 15th century • Oceans and landmasses smaller than actual size John 3:16

  24. Ships and Sailing • New seaworthy ships developed by Europeans -Axial rudders—import from China -Lateen sails -Square rig John 3:16

  25. Ships and Sailing • Mobil for warfare • Could sail against wind • Carry heavy cannon • Quadrant was useless below the equator—depended on position of Pole Star • Compass and astrolabe helped • Wind patterns learned John 3:16

  26. Portuguese took the lead in European age of expansion Began to explore the coast of Africa under sponsorship of Prince Henry the Navigator Sought Christian kingdom to ally against the Muslims Acquiring trade opportunities Extending Christianity New Horizons: The PORTUGUESE AND THE SPANISH EMPIRES John 3:16

  27. The Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire • Prince Henry founded school for navigation in Portugal • Portuguese ships exploring west coast of Africa searching for gold John 3:16

  28. The Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire • Portuguese ships brought cargo of Africans sold as slaves • Within 3 years, an estimated 1000 slaves were brought into Lisbon John 3:16

  29. The Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire • Portuguese gradually crept down the African coast • Found gold at “hump” of Africa on the West Coast—henceforth known as the Gold Coast • To facilitate trade in gold, slaves, and ivory, Portuguese leased land John 3:16

  30. The Portuguese in India • Sought route to India around Africa • Bartholomeu Dias (1488) reached tip of south Africa but returned fearing mutiny • Vasco de Gama rounded cape and stopped at several ports on east coast controlled by Muslims • De Gama crossed the Arabian Sea and reached Calcutta, India John 3:16

  31. The Portuguese in India • In India, de Gama said he was looking for “Christians and spices” • No Christians, but his ships “holds” filled with spices earned his investors great profit • Portugal tried to establish blockade at entrance to the Red Sea to block Muslim traders John 3:16

  32. The Portuguese in India • Admiral Afonso de Albuquerque set up port facilities in Goa • Became headquarters for Portuguese operations • From here, conducted raids against Muslim traders John 3:16

  33. In Search of Spices • Albuquerque seized the Muslim port of Malacca on the Malay peninsula • Short battle • Massacred local Arab population • From Malacca, the Portuguese seized control of spice trade from Muslims • Established ports in India and China • Portuguese empire remained small John 3:16

  34. In Search of Spices • Why were the Portuguese so successful? • Good battle tactics • Good seamanship • Heavy guns • Good naval technology John 3:16

  35. Voyages to the New World • The Portuguese had sailed east for discoveries • The Spanish were attempting to sail west for same discoveries • The plentiful resources of Spain enabled Spain to establish a larger empire than the Portuguese John 3:16

  36. The Voyages of Columbus • Christopher Columbus was Italian explorer • Sought East Indies by going west • Rejected by Portuguese • Supported by Queen Isabella of Spain John 3:16

  37. The Voyages of Columbus • Columbus figured the earth smaller and Asia larger than believed • Three ships: Santa Maria, Nina, and Pinta • Crew of 90 • Set sail August 3, 1492 • Reached Bahamas October 12 • Continued to explore Hispaniola, current day Cuba and Dominican Republic John 3:16

  38. The Voyages of Columbus • Columbus believed he had reached Asia • Persisted in called the natives “Indians” • Reports to Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand stated he would find gold and convert the natives to Christianity • In four voyages, Columbus landed on all major Caribbean islands and Central America mainland but failed to find Asia John 3:16

  39. New Voyages • John Cabot • Venetian seaman • Explored New England coastline • License from King Henry VII of England John 3:16

  40. New Voyages • Pedro Cabral • Portuguese sea captain • Accidentally discovered South America in 1500 • Stayed in Brazil for 10 days and moved on John 3:16

  41. New Voyages • Amerigo Vespucci • Florentine • Accompanied several voyages • Wrote letters describing voyages and world geography • Due to letters, people started to call the New World America John 3:16

  42. New Voyages • Vasco Nunez de Balboa • Spanish explorer • Expedition across Isthmus of Panama and reached Pacific Ocean John 3:16

  43. New Voyages • Ferdinand Magellan • Sailed through strait name for him • Across Pacific to Philippines • Killed by Philippine natives • Only 1 of 5 ships returned to Spain • First circumnavigation of the globe John 3:16

  44. New Voyages • Europeans saw opportunity in New World • Conquest and exploitation would follow • Treaty of Tordesillas • Divided New World into spheres of influence • Spanish: most of South America and the route across the Atlantic • Portuguese: Cape of Good Hope and east • Eastern hump of South America, both John 3:16

  45. The Spanish Empire in the New World • Conquistadors were privately financed • Superior weapons and organizational skills • Benefitted from rivalries among native peoples • Coronado and others were Conquistadors John 3:16

  46. Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica • Mayan people settled in Yucatan Peninsula • 300 A.D. • Highly sophisticated • Splendid temples and pyramids • Accomplished artists • Accurate calendar • Agrarian society John 3:16

  47. Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica • Mayans covered much of covered much of Central America and southern Mexico • Disappeared around 800 A.D., reason unknown John 3:16

  48. Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica • Aztecs establish capital in Tenochtitlan around 1200 A.D. after long migration • Location was on island in middle of Lake Texcoco • Current location of Mexico City John 3:16

  49. Early Civilizations of Mesoamerica • Aztecs were outstanding warriors and builders • By 1500, they had established their dominion over much of current Mexico, Atlantic to Pacific John 3:16

  50. Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica • Aztec kingdom was not a centralized state but a collection of semi-independent territories • Local rulers confirmed by Aztec ruler • Territories paid tribute to Aztec ruler John 3:16