Serial Killers and Psychopaths • David Lombard, Ph.D. • Center for Applied Behavioral Studies • www.DavidLombard.com
Charles Manson “From the worlds of darkness I did let loose devils and demons with the power of scorpions to torment."
“The moment of death is enthralling and exciting. Only those who actually kill know what I mean…When I am released I will feel that moment again.” “I am the man of the century. No one will forget me.” Pedro Alonzo Lopez: Monster of the Andes
Aileen Wuornos:Highway Killer ” I robbed them, and I killed them cold as ice, and I know I would kill another person because I’ve hated humans for a long time."
“I should never have been convicted of anything more serious than running a cemetery without a license." John Gacy: Killer Clown
Edmund Kemper: Co-Ed Killer “One side of me says ‘I’d like to talk to her, date her’. The other side of me says, ‘I wonder how her head would look on a stick’."
Brief History of Psychopathy • Term derived from the Greek psych (mind) and pathos (suffering), and was once used to denote any form of mental illness. • In 1801, PhillipePinel, the founder of French Psychiatry, identified such individuals as behaving crazily without actually being crazy. • In 1812, Benjamin Rush, the first American psychiatrist, described them as patients with “innate preternatural moral depravity. • In 1886, philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche writes Beyond Good and Eviladvocating the psychopathic personality as the individual’s legitimate right to becoming an “Ubermensch” or “Superman.”
Brief History of Psychopathy • In 1910, Freud proposes that the psychopathic personality emerges when the war between the Id’s instinctual drives resulting in an “instinct of destruction, of mastery, the will to power” and an “I see, I want, it’s mine” orientation to the world. • In 1915, Emil Kraepelin used the term “psychopathic personality” to describe amoral vs. immoral criminal types. • In 1941, H. CleckleyThe Mask of Sanity, Psychopaths are human in every respect – but it is a lack of "soul quality" that makes them very efficient "machines." • In 1980, psychologist Robert Hare creates the diagnostic tool called the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL).
Relationship betweenPsychopathy & Antisocial PD ANTISOCIAL PD PSYCHOPATHY
Psychopathy in Life • Serial killers, repeat bank robbers, con artists, organized crime • What about other similar characters? • Robert Hare has proposed a more informative diagnostic category: • Psychopathy
Are Psychopaths just Anti-Social • Major distinction appears to be in symptomatology • “Lack of remorse,” a core symptom of psychopathy, is not required for diagnosis of APD. • In one study, 75 to 80% of convicted felons met criteria for APD, but failed to meet criteria for psychopathy.
FACTOR 1 Charming Manipulative Superficial Shallow Lack of remorse Inconsistent FACTOR 2 Failure to conform Impulsivity Aggression Deceitful/lying Disregard for others Irresponsibility Psychopathy Psychopathy encompasses both of these factors whereas Antisocial PD predominantly involves Factor 2
Factor 1 in everyday life • Lawyers, politicians, businessman • Aspects of psychopathy may be seen in many areas of life • These two factors are reliable • Across sites • Across cultures
Psychopaths identified by Hare • Two clusters: • 1. Emotional detachment cluster- a selfish remorseless individual with inflated self-esteem who exploits others. • 2. Antisocial lifestyle cluster- marked by impulsivity & irresponsibility.
The Path to the Psychopath 40-50% of CD becomes ASPD 2-16% 6-16% boys 2-9% girls 3% males 1% females PDD ADHD FAS/FAE Bipolar LD etc… 1% PDD 1-20% ADHD 1% FAS/FAE 4-6% Bipolar 2-8% LD 1% Oppositional Defiant Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder Psychopathic Personality Disorder Conduct Disorder Stimulus seeking Lack goals Parasitic Predatory Violent Criminal acts Impulsiveness Disregard safety Irresponsibility Lack remorse Aggression Destruction Deceitfulness Rule violation Manipulation Hostile Defiant Negative Inattention Poor social skills Learning deficits • 80% of kids with ADHD as children carry it into adolescence, and 60% of those had developed ODD or CD. • 100% of antisocial personality disorder have diagnosis of CD as youth. 17
Are psychopaths born or made? • Most likely there are components of both that account for the development of full fledged psychopathy.
Causes of APD & Psychopathy? • Family • McCord & McCord concluded that lack of affection & severe parental rejection may be primary causes of psychopathic behavior. • Other suspected family related factors are: • Inconsistencies in discipline or no discipline at all • physical abuse • marital discord • substance use.
Heritable components • Twin Studies: • 1. Higher concordance rate for MZ twins than for DZ twins in APD. • Adoption Studies: • 2. Higher rate of antisocial behavior in adopted children of biological parents with APD.
Father’s behavior • Fathers of psychopaths are likely to be antisocial personalities themselves!!!!!!
Environmental Factors • Environment seems to play an important role in APD. • It has been shown that environmental factors such as marital problems and substance abuse) are related to the development of APD. • Also high levels of conflict & negativity and low levels of parental warmth predict APD.
What’s likely to be going on? • Child with propensity for antisocial behavior may be difficult to deal with & produce environmental changes that result in harsh conditions (treatment) by family members. • This may fuel development of full blown antisocial behavior.
Are psychopaths less prone to anxiety than normal people? • Yes!!! • Lykken (1957) studied the ability of psychopaths & controls to avoid shock. • Psychopaths were poorer than controls at avoiding the shocks, suggesting they are low in anxiety compared to controls.
Do psychopaths fear little? • Psychopaths show a pattern of autonomic activity that suggests they “tune out” aversive stimuli. • Their hearts beat faster than normals when anticipating stress, but their skin conductance levels are lower than controls in response to aversive stimuli. • This makes them appear under aroused when they are not.
Planning • Attention • Judgment • Reflection • Prioritizing • Self control • Strategizing • Sequencing • Anticipation • Organization • Impulse control • Second thought • Working memory • Modulating mood • Response flexibility • Goal-directed behavior • Foresee consequences
Phineas gage Environmental Trauma and the Brain The Case of Phineas Gage • Gage was a railroad construction supervisor in 1848 when a tamping rod was driven through his skull by an explosion. • The tamping rod severed the connections in the frontal area. • Prior to the accident he was a moral, hardworking, sensitive, conscientious, intelligent, and well liked. • Following the accident, his personality changed: lying and conning, violent, alcoholic, and antisocial.
PSYCHOPATH Self-concept: Invulnerable Superior Pre-emptive rights Sees Others: Dupes/stupid Inferior Weak Strategies: Manipulative Violence REACTIVE Vulnerable Fluctuates/unstable Fragile rights Hostile Oppositional The enemy Inadequate problem solving “Defensive” violence Psychopathy Vs Reactive Offender
high neuroticism extravert introvert psychopaths low neuroticism
Criminal Careers • Life course persistent antisocial (preadolescent onset; chronic offending) • High recidivism risk • Burnout with age ? or change in display of antisocial behaviour • Big four risk predictors: • Antisocial beliefs; • Antisocial associates; • Antisocial history; • Antisocial personality (psychopathic).
Violence and Psychopathy • Psychopathy a robust predictor of violent recidivism • Instrumental violence vs reactive • VRAG, SORAG, HCR-20 use psychopathy to predict risk
Sexual offending and Psychopathy • Child sexual offending • Importance of Factor One • Rape • PCL on own not enough • Need sexual risk factors • Opportunistic sexual behavior • Treatment difficulties • Seto and Barbaree’s (1999) study
Victim List 1) Lonnie Trumbull, 23/6/66 2) Donna Manson, 12/3/74 3) Susan Elaine Rancourt, 17/4/74 4) Kathy Parks, 6/5/74 5) Brenda Baker, 25/5/74 6) Brenda Ball, 1/6/74 7) Georgeann Hawkins, 11/ 6/74 8) Janice Ott, 14/7/74 9) Denise Naslund, 14/7/74 10) Jane Doe, 2/9/74 11) Nancy Wilcox, 2/10/74 12) Melissa Smith, 10/18/74 13) Laura Aimee, 31/10/74 14) Debbie Kent, 8/11/74 15) Caryn Campbell, 1/12/75 16) Julie Cunningham, 15/3/75 17) Denise Oliverson, 4/6/75 18) Melanie Cooley, 15/4/75 19) Lynette Culver, 5/6/75 20) Susan Curtis, 28/6/75 21) Shelley Robertson, 1/7/75 22) Nancy Baird, 4/ 7/75 23) Debbie Smith, ?/2/76 24) Lisa Levy, 15/1/78 • Margaret Bowman, 15/1/78 26) Kimberly Ann Leach, 9/2/78 Several other victims survived, the actual number is unknown
Biography • Born 1946 Seattle, executed 1989, aged 43 • Loving (church going) family • Married (in jail) • College graduate, law student, politically ambitious, rape counselor. • Respected and admired by (most) who met him. • Popular with women, generally considered to be a nice guy. • Served on crime prevention committees • Performed community service regularly
Anti-social activity • Serial killer in early eighties • Raped and murdered 12 women from Washington to Florida • Chose victims who looked like his ex girlfriend. • Crimes spanned four states • Escaped from jail to resume his killing spree • Protested his innocence until he was sentenced to death, when he showed remorse.
Victim List • 1) Steven Hicks June, 1978 • 2) Steven Tuomi Sept, 1987 • 3) James Doxtator January, 1988 • 4) Richard Guerrero March, 1988 • 5) Anthony Sears March, 1989 • 6) Edward Smith June, 1990 • 7) Raymond Smith July, 1990 • 8) Ricky Lee Beeks July, 1990 • 9) Ernest Miller Sept., 1990 • 10) David Thomas Sept., 1990 • 11) Curtis Straughter Feb., 1991 • 12) Errol Lindsey April, 1991 • 13) Anthony Hughes May 24, 1991 • 14) KonerakSinthasomphone May 27, 1991 • 15) Matt Turner June 30, 1991 • 16) Jeremiah Weinberger July 5, 1991 • 17) Oliver Lacey July 12, 1991 • 18) Joseph Bradehoft July 19, 1991
The Early Years • Dissected dead animals at a young age • Teenage years: alcoholic • Molested by a neighbor • Parents divorced - left with only his father • Had dreams of killing and mutilating men • College: dropped out and joined the army • 1982: Moved in with his grandmother (22 years old) • Arrested for exposing himself at a state fair • 1986: Arrested for exposure of himself to two young males • 1988: Grandmother kicked him out • Stayed up all night • Odors from the basement • 1988: Arrested for sexually fondling a 13 year old boy • Convinced judge he needed a therapist
Anti-social activity • Victims all male • Age / race not consistent • Murdered in killers home • All were homosexual • Victims all raped • Victims were lured to his home for intimate contact • Once there victims were drugged and tortured • Bodies were dismembered • Some body parts were eaten by the killer
The Police Found • Multiple photographs of murdered victims • Human remains: heads and genitals • Corpse were stored in acid filled vats • Was attempting to create zombies • Practiced necrophilia, cannibalism, and possibly a form of trepanation
The End of Dahmer One of his victims escaped and a neighbor called the police, who believed Dahmers’ story of the boy being his lover and released the boy to Dahmers’ custody and his death. A final victim was lucky enough to escape and this time the police took notice. He admitted to the murders and detailed his brutality. He plead guilty and insane but the jury found him guilty and sane, while he was in prison one inmate tried to slash Dahmers’ throat unsuccessfully, the next attack (with an iron bar) was successful in smashing Dahmers’ scull and killing him.
Paul Bernardo • Hamilton, Ontario • University graduate • Successful accountant
Karla Homolka • Hamilton, Ontario • University graduate • Veterinary assistant
Antisocial activities • Paul had many prior girlfriends but treated them sadistic fashion • He and Karla had a sado-masochistic sex life • Together, they drugged, raped and murdered three women • Including Karla’s sister • They filmed the activities to watch later
Karla wins • Karla turns in Paul to police • Gets special deal – 12 years in prison • Paul gets life in prison – no chance of parole