New Horizon College English Book One Unit Nine Enter 白武平 编
Section A Looking to the 21st Century
Pre-reading Activities Structure of the Passage New Words Expressions & Patterns Writing quiz Tips from CET- 4
Background Questions and Answers
TheFuturist http://www.wfs.org/futurist.htm, a bi-monthly magazine of predictions, trends and ideas published since 1967, takes no position on what the future will or should be but acts simply as a clearing house for ideas. The World Future Society http://www.wfs.org, located in Maryland, produces five publications, manages a bookstore, its web site http://www.wfs.org and its membership of over 30,000. It is a not-for-profit organization for educators and scientists interested in how social and technical developments shape the future.
Questions & Answers • How will work quality be determined • in this new century? • 2. What tool brings about major change in this new century? • 3. What are the five tasks this tool will do in this new century?
This new century will bring many changes. Computers could measure brain activity to determine the quality of our work. Doctors will use computers instead of books to evaluate and treat sickness; citizens will use computers to learn about health problems. Computers in cars will show our routes, take money from our bank accounts, identify motor problems, figure out repair costs and locate repair shops. Home computers will take care of regular duties in the home and help with homework and order food. More women
will enter the work force and start their own business; people will change jobs every ten years; middle managers will disappear while people with precise skills will become more important than ordinary workers. Protecting the environment will be an international concern. Health and fitness will be major interests of government and business as well as citizens.
Structure Analysis Major Writing Techniques
Structure Analysis Central topic: Looking to the 21stCentury
Structure Analysis Main Idea of the Text The author lists eight different important elements concerning ourselves in the era, 21st century : Future, brain, doctor, car, computer-home, workplace, environment and health. Through the illustration of these eight aspects, the author predicts the future pictures in the 21st century.
Main Idea of Each Paragraph Your Future: It is what we do and do not do that determine the future. Your Brain: Your brainwaves may be checked to decide whether you focus on work. Your Doctor: Doctors will treat you by referring to visual information from computers. Your Car: Cars will be entirely controlled by computers.
The Computer-Home: Home computers will become essential to home life.The Workplace: People are changing careers after a period instead of staying in a job for life.
The Environment: Besides special groups, governments and businesses also concern about the environment.Your Health: Physical fitness and healthy lifestyles have changed from fashion and hobby for few to official policy for many businesses and governments.
Major writing techniques: Topic-details Way Quotation/Personification Example/Simile/Comparison Parallel / Number
Topic-Details way (主题细节法) The writer presents the prediction for the 21st Century with general statements, which are supported by details. Each general statement has been numbered for quick scanning.
Just look at Number 6 of the reading passage. We find that the topic for this part is “the changing face of work and the workplace”. To describe the changes, the writer organized five short paragraphs in this part.
The first paragraph is about the general statement. The second paragraph is about the women’s role in work.
The third paragraph is about people’s changing career. The fourth paragraph is about the role of information and knowledge at workplaces. The fifth paragraph is about the role of specialists. And from second paragraph to the fifth paragraph are details to support the general statement in the first paragraph.
The fifth paragraph is about the role of specialists. And from second paragraph to the fifth paragraph are details to support the general statement in the first paragraph.
Quotation (引言法 ) To support his argument, the author quotes as hard evidence from the magazine, the Futurist published by the world Future Society saying: “The responsibility we have for the future begins when we …what we do not do.”(P198, line5-8) Psychologist Arthur F. Kramer tested volunteers working on arithmetic problems.(P198, line13)
The future does not determine itself.(P198,line2) Computers will record the passage of the car and automatically take the money from the owner’s computer bank account.(P199, line31 Computers will show drivers maps of districts the car is crossing on a small screen in the car.(P199, line34) Personification(拟人法)
Computers will diagnose any problems with the engine. Computer connections will list the nearest places of repair, tell the cost of new parts and the place where they can be bought. (P199, line36)Computers turn on the lights, heating and essential household services before people arrive home from work. Computers control cooking, hot water, security.(P199, line44)
London, England’s biggest city, often suffers from air pollution which causes more than 1,000 deaths a year.(P200, line68)Here, the author compares the future to be a man because only man can take such actions as “determine, show, diagnose, list, tell, turn on, control, suffer from”
Example(例证法） Psychologist Arthur F. Kramer tested volunteers working on arithmetic problems.(P198, line13) For example, Germany has 600 sites that monitor carbon monoxide.(P200, line72)
Simile(明喻) • Frequent computer analysis could tell whether workers, like air traffic controllers, are seeing all activity clearly enough to monitor it properly.(P199, line17) • Computers enable homework assignments to be done with worldwide resources, using sites like museums and science facilities around the world.(P199, line46)
Comparison(对比） • Homework help can come equally from the local library, or libraries and databases in places as far apart as New York and London, or from teachers and fellow students around the globe.(P199, line47) • Specialists are becoming more important than general workers.(P200, line62)
Parallel(排比） • We ourselves build the future both through what we do and what we do not do.(P198, line7) • Computer connections will list the nearest places of repair, tell the cost of new parts and the place where they can be bought.(P199, line36) • Besides, every part of the passage is in parallel.
Computers turn on the lights, heating and essential householdservices before people arrive home from work. Computers control cooking, hot water, security.(P199, line44)
Homework help can come equally from the local library, or libraries and databases in places as far apart as New York and London, or from teachers and fellow studentsaround the globe.(P199, line47)
Number(数字法） • More than half of the home computers sold in the United States in recent years will become essential to home life in the West.(P199, line41) Women now form more than half the workers; the percentage is…(P200, line55) London, England’s biggest city, often…which causes more than 1,000 deaths a year.(P200, line68)
For example, Germany has 600 sites that monitor carbon monoxide.(P200, line72)Although pills for…doctors, most now require patients to develop…(P200,line81)
New Words predict interactive alternative household survive siege
say in advance (what will happen) • 预测,预言，预料 predict v. e.g. • He could predict their performance from the strength of the brain’s electrical activity measured through the head. • 通过所测量到的他们头部脑电波活动的强度，他能够预测他们的成绩。 2）She predicted that he would marry a doctor. 她预言他将娶一位医生。
practice Economists are predicting a fall in interest rates. 这项报告预言煤炭业将失去更多的工作岗位。 The report predicted that more jobs would be lost in the coal industry. 经济学家预言利率将会下降。 很难预料这次事故会有什么长期影响。 It is difficult to predict what the long-term effects of the accident will be.
Predictability n.predictable adj.可预言[报]的predictably adv.Predictive adj.预言性的; 前兆的prediction n. 预言，预告The outcome of hardworking students is always predictable.Predictably it was the demonstrators who were blamed for the violence.不出所料，暴力行为的责任推到了示威者身上。
PredictionEarlier predictions of a Republican victory began to look increasingly unlikely.对于共和党获胜的早期预言开始显得越来越不可能了。I find it very hard to make a prediction.我发现这非常难以预料。
1) communicating between the user and the machine 人机对话的 2）acting on each other 互动的 interactive a. eg. • This will make computer games more interactive than ever. 这使得电脑游戏中人机之间比以前更能互通信息。 2) Student-centered teaching is interactive teaching in the classroom. 以学生为中心的教学是一种在课堂上师生双向互动的教学方法。 practice 互动的工作方法有利于形成融洽的关系。 Interactive working ways are helpful to harmonious relationship .
interact vi. interaction interactivity n. All things are interrelated and interact on each other. 一切事物互相联系并互相作用。 Tom interacts well with other children in the class. 汤姆和班里的其他孩子相处得很好。 The interaction of the tones of demand and supply is the law for marketing economy. 供求消长趋势的相互作用是市场经济的规律。
a . giving a choice from among more than two things可选择的 n. a serious choice （必须作的）选择 alternative eg. 1）They had a right to seek alternative employment. 他们有权选择另一项工作。 2） I had no alternative but to report him to the police. 除了向警察举报他，我别无选择。 practice 似乎没有别的选择。 There doesn’t seem to be an alternative option. 哈姆莱特别无选择，只能与那位武士决斗。 Hamlet had no alternative but to duel with the knight.
alternate a.(1)交替的, 轮流的; (2)更迭的;(3) 交错的,每隔一的, 间隔的,预备的, 候补的(4)【植】互生的n. (1)替换物 (2)[美](委员)代理人(3)备用机场(4)比较方案(5)交错比例vt.使交替, 使轮流vi.交替, 轮流;【电】交流
eg. a.an alternate member of the committee 委员会候补委员 alternate angles【数】(一对)错角 alternate layout另一方案 alternate leaves【植】互生叶 alternaterows 隔行on alternate days隔日 n. He is the alternate for Xinhua News Agency. 他是新华社的代表。 v. Night and day alternate. 昼夜交替。
n. all the people living in a house家庭 • of family & house家庭的，每户的 household eg. • Many poor households are experiencing real hard times. 许多贫困家庭正过着极度艰难的生活。。 2) household costs / household business 家庭开支 / 家庭企业 practice 农村每家每户的生活方式差不多。 Each countryside household has the similar living means. 马克思是一个家喻户晓的名字。 The name Marx is a household name.
continue to live especially after coming close to death 幸免于难 • 2) live longer than比......活得长 survive v. eg. • We all hoped that the small boat could survive the storm. 我们都希望小船能幸免于暴风雨的劫难。 2) Some people believe that only the strongest can survive. 有些人相信只有最强壮的才能生存下来。 practice 谢天谢地，我的村庄在那场特大洪水中幸存下来。 Thankfully, my village survived the great flood. 汤姆比他妻子多活了三个月。 Tom survived his wife by three months.
an act of surrounding a city, etc., by an army trying to capture it • 包围 siege eg. • Troy was under siege for ten years. 特洛伊城被围困了10年。 2) In June 1176 King Richard laid siege to Limoges. 理查一世国王于1176年6月对科摩日实施包围。 practice 电视台受到愤怒观众的围攻，他们不断打电话来投诉。 The TV station has been under siege from irate viewers phoning in to complain. 丑闻爆出后，数十名记者包围了梅勒的公寓。 When the scandal broke, dozens of journalists laid siege to Mellor’s apartment.
Expressions 1. impose on (upon) 2. work on (upon) 3. pay for 4. bill for 5. start up 6. on average 7. at risk
impose on (upon) 强加于 eg. 政府不可能向面包或牛奶这类生活必需品税。 The government would not dare to impose taxes on such needed foods as bread or milk. practice 征收进口税/征收酒类税/把假货卖给某人 impose a tax on imports impose duties on wines and spirits impose a false article upon a person
2. work on (upon)努力做...... eg. 他正在写他上周开始写的那个剧本。 He's working on a play that he started last week. practice 肯正忙于为在大都会歌剧院演出的一部歌剧制作几台布景。 Ken was working on some sets for an opera at the Met. (metropolis)
3.pay for因什么而受苦;因购买...... 而付钱 particular make of goods or trade mark eg. 有时侯你得为自己所犯的错误付出沉重的代价。 Sometimes you have to pay dearly for mistakes. 我是用高价买的这辆自行车。 I paid good money for that bicycle. practice 他们应为自己的不良行为付出代价。 They should pay for their ill behavior. 他对自己预定的饭菜付了帐。 He paid for his reserved meals.