New Horizon College English Book One Unit Three Enter 吴爱萍 编
Section A A Good Heart to Lean on
Pre-reading Activities Structure of the Passage New Words Expressions & Patterns Writing Quiz Tips from CET- 4
Background Questions and Answers
2. Brooklyn is a suburb of New York. more 上一页
3. Ebbets Field is the stadium built by and named after Charlie Ebbets, the owner of the Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team. The first game played in this former home of the Brooklyn Dodgers took place in 1938. The Dodgers no longer play for Brooklyn. For more information, visit http://www.baseball-almanac.com/stadiume.shtml and http://www.ballparks.com/baseball/national/ebbets.htm more
4. Dodgers: The Dodgers, the name of a baseball team; the team originally played for Brooklyn but now it no longer plays for Brooklyn. For more information, visithttp://www.mcny.org/brookln2.htm
Questions & Answers 1.Why do you think people stared at the father and the son? 2. What do you think a “good heart” is? 3. What is the difference between how the son felt about his father as a youth and how he feels many years later?
Reference Words: stare at, extremely unusual, severely crippled, lean on sb. for balance, the center of attention Generally speaking, people tend to stare at persons who are extremely unusual, say, the charmingly beautiful ones, the fairly ugly ones and the rather disabled ones. Since the father was short, severely crippled, and when they walked along the street, the father leaned on his son for balance, it is not strange for the father and the son to be the center of the attention.
To my knowledge, a “good heart” refers to the good nature of a person, which involves the aspects as follows: To begin with, he is kind with the people around him, thinking as much of others as of himself. Besides, he is honest in dealing with any affairs. He has a strong sense of what is right and wrong. And best of all, he is ready to help when someone is in trouble or in need of his help. Reference Words: to my knowledge, refer to, be kind with, think as much of others as of oneself, be honest in doing sth., in need of
Reference Words: illustrate, judge people by appearances, different phases of his life, embarrassed, with the passage of time, departure, lean on, make up for sth. We can use two adjectives---shamed and sorry to illustrate the son’s feelings about his father in different phases of his life. When he was growing up, he was embarrassed/shamed to be seen with his father. He tended to judge the father by appearances or physical conditions and others’staring. With the passage of time, especially after the father’s departure, however, he came to learn that his father had a good heart for him to lean on. Now he feels terribly sorry for his past feelings about his father, but there is no chance to make up for it.
Structure Analysis Major Writing Techniques
Structure Analysis Central topic: A Good Heart to Lean on
Structure Analysis Main Idea of the Text How a crippled father helps his son keep balance through his act of deep caring.
Main Idea of Part I (Paras. 1-5) The son was embarrassed to be seen walking with his crippled father, but the father subjected himself to the shame and stress without bitterness and complaint. Main Idea of Part II (Paras. 6-7) The son now realizes that his father treated others with a good heart.
Main Idea of Part III (Paras. 8-11) The father’s attempt to experience things directly and indirectly. Main Idea of Part IV (Paras.12-13) The father has gone many years, but the son feels regret for his reluctance and relies much more on his father for his balance of mind.
Major writing techniques: Exemplification Narration Interspersed with Comments Comparison & Contrast
Exemplification (举例法) (‘Main idea’ supported by ‘examples’) General point Ⅰ: Unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in some way. (Para.8) eg. 1)When a local baseball team found itself without a manager, he kept it going.(Para. 8) more
2) He liked to go to dances and parties, where he could have a good time just sitting and watching.(Para. 8) 3)On one occasion a fight broke out at a beach party, with everyone punching and shoving. He wasn’t content to sit and watch, but he couldn’t stand unaided on the soft sand. In frustration he began to shout, “I’ll fight anyone who will sit down with me! I’ll fight anyone who will sit down with me!” (Para. 9) more
General point Ⅱ: ? (Para.11) I now know he participated in some things through me, his only son. (Para.11) eg. 1）When I played ball (poorly), he “played” too. 1） ? (Para. 11) 2）When I joined the Navy, he “joined” too. 2） ? (Para. 11) 3）And when I came home on leave, he saw to it that I visited his office. Introducing me, he was really saying, “this is my son, but it is also me, and I could have done this, too, if things had been different.” Those words were never said aloud. 3） ? (Para. 11)
2. Narration Interspersed with Comments(夹叙夹议) 1) Narrative parts (Para.1-4) Father’s physical condition and how he managed to get to work. Comments (Para.5): When I think of it now, I am amazed at how much courage … to subject himself to such shame and stress. And at how he did it---without bitterness or complaint. 2) Narrative part (Para.6) Father treated others with a good heart… Comments(Para.7) I believe that is a proper standard by which to judge people.
3. Comparison & Contrast(对比法) The comparison & contrast is centered around “the son” and “the father” 1) Their attitudes towards people’s staring The son: embarrassed to be seen walking with the crippled father The father: never letting on even when bothered or talking about himself as an object of pity more
2) Their ways of conducting oneself The son: envious of another’s good fortune, short of “ good heart”, complaining about trifles (Para. 12) The father: brave (courage) to subject himself to the shame and stress without bitterness and complaint, showing no envy of the more fortune or able, and looking for “good heart” in others (Para.5 and 6) more
3) Their dependence on each other The son: I put my hand on the father’s arm for my balance of mind when I complain about trifles, when I am envious of another’s good fortune, when I don’t have a ‘good heart’. The father: I put my hand on the son’s arm for my balance of body when we walked together, when I went to work, when snow or ice was on the ground.
New Words lean adjust precise balance precisely cling severe engage complaint urge severely envy complain coordinate envious pace
rest on sth. in a listing position for support 倚；靠 • be in a listing position; bend 倾斜；倾向；偏向 lean vi. eg. She was exhausted and leaned against the wall. 她筋疲力尽地靠在墙上。 Don't lean out of the window. 别把身子探出窗外。 practice 她靠在他的肩上。 She leaned against his shoulder. more
even sharing of weight; even; equal 平衡；均衡 • condition that exists when two opposites are equal or in even lots or percents 均势, 平衡 lean n. eg. It's difficult to keep one's balance on an icy street. 在结冰的街道上保持平衡是不容易的。 The growth of the new political party upset the balance of power. 新政党的壮大打破了力量的均势。 practice 要努力使工作和娱乐更好地平衡。 Try to achieve a better balance between work and play.
1） (cause to) be even and keep in balance (使) 平衡, (使) 均衡 2) consider in relation to something else; compare 权衡；比较 balance v. eg. When you ride a bicycle you must learn to balance. 学骑自行车必须学会保持平衡。 You have to balance the positive points of living in the suburb against the negative ones. 你必须权衡居住在郊区的利和弊。 practice 你必须权衡住在市中心的利弊。 You have to balance the advantages of living downtown against the disadvantages.
very bad, intense, difficult, etc 非常恶劣的；紧张的；困难的 • strict or hard in thinking or treatment; using strict discipline 严格的；严肃的；严厉的 severe a. eg. The severe teacher has gone abroad; You can breathe freely again. "要求苛严的教师已经出国了,你可以完全放心了。" The dry spell is becoming more and more severe. 旱灾日益严重。 practice 法官对小偷太严厉了吗？ Was the judge too severe on the thief? more
in a severe or strict way 严格地；严厉地；非常恶劣地 severely ad. eg. Dangerous driving should be severely punished. 危险驾驶应该受到严厉处罚。 He was severely punished. 他受到严惩。 practice 患重病[负重伤] be severely ill [wounded] 敬而远之 leave [let] severely alone
cause (different parts, body parts, etc) to work together very well 使协调 coordinate vt. eg. Our efforts need to be further coordinated for higher efficiency. 为了获得更高的效率我们的工作需要进一步协调。 coordinate the movements of the arms and legs 使胳膊和腿的动作协调 practice 调整政府机构的作用 coordinate the function of government agencies 互相配合 coordinate with each other
n. 1) speed, esp. of walking or running （尤指走或跑的）速度 2) speed of progress or development, esp. of an activity 进步或发展的速度（尤 指某项活动的速度） vi. walk with slow, regular, even steps pace eg. She slowed down her pace so I could keep up with her. 她放慢了速度，以便我能跟上她。 The work progressed at a slow pace. 这工作进展缓慢。 practice "一个穿便衣的警察站在我后面十几步远的地方,监视着我。 A policeman with plain clothes stood a dozen paces behind me watching me.
(to) become or make suited (to new conditions); to change使适应（新环境）；适应 • (to) change (sth.) by a small bit so that it will fit or be right for use; make regular 调整；校准；调准 adjust v. eg. He adjusted himself very quickly to the heat of the country. 他使自己很快适应了这个国家炎热的气候。 He soon adjusted to army life. 他很快就适应了军中生活。 practice 清理帐目 adjust the accounts 评定损失 adjust the losses 把表拨准 adjust the watch 校正误差 adjust the errors
(to) hold on tightly to sb./sth. 抱住；抓紧 • (to) hold on tightly to sb./sth. 抱住；抓紧 cling vi. eg. The baby monkey clung to its mother. 小猴子紧紧偎着它妈妈。 He is of a clinging sort. 他是那种总要依靠别人的人。 practice 分离的时候到了， 他们紧抱着不肯分开。 They clung together when the time came to part. 习惯用语： cling on to 紧紧抱住， 死抱不放
(the act of saying that one is not satisfied or unhappy 抱怨；诉苦 • a report of lack of satisfaction 控告；投诉；抱怨 complaint n. eg. The road-works caused much complaint among local neighbors. 修路工程使当地居民叫苦连天。 You have no cause for complaint. 你没有理由诉苦。 practice "如果你的邻居太喧哗,你就有理由投诉。" If your neighbours are too noisy then you have cause for complaint. more
习惯用语： He who makes constant complaint gets little compassion. [谚]经常诉苦， 少人同情。 lodge a complaint 提出不满意见， 对...提出控告 make a complaint 提出不满意见， 对...提出控告 lodge a complaint against 提出不满意见， 对...提出控告 make a complaint against 提出不满意见， 对...提出控告
n. (of, at, towards) feeling of lack of worth caused by sb. else‘s good fortune or success, esp. when one wishes this for oneself 妒忌；羡慕 vt. feel envy of (sb.) or at (sth.) 羡慕；妒忌 cling envy eg. He couldn‘t hide his envy at my success. 他无法掩饰对我成功的妒忌。 His new car excited their envy. 他的新汽车令他们很羡慕。 practice 我一直羡慕你运气好。 I have always envied your good luck. 我可不羡慕他在金钱上碰到的难题。 I don't envy him his money problems. more
(of) full of envy; feeling, showing or expressing envy 嫉妒的；羡慕的 envious a. cling eg. He was envious of his brother's success. 他很羡慕他弟弟的成功。 She was envious of her sister's new fashionable dress. 她很羡慕姐姐的那件时髦的新衣服。 practice 她妒嫉妹妹的美貌。 She was envious of her sister's beauty. 罗伯特的新工作听上去很好--我妒羡他。 Robert's new job sounds very nice - I'm envious of him / I'm full of envy / I envy him. more
stated clearly and accurately 精确的；准确的；明白的；无误的 • exact; particular 正好；就在 cling precise a. eg. eg. A lawyer needs a precise mind. 律师需要极清楚的头脑。 I can't give you a precise date. 我不能告诉你一个确切的日期。 practice 非常严谨的人 a very precise man 在态度上拘泥而斤斤计较 prim and precise in one's manner 精确的尺寸 precise measurements [用作插入语]确切地讲 to be precise 恰恰在那个时刻 at that precise moment more
precisely ad. exactly, just精确地 准确地 eg. I can‘t remember precisely what happened. 我记不清发生了什么事。 The two reports are precisely the same. 两个陈述一模一样。 practice 请明确地告诉我你想要什么？ Tell me precisely what do you want? more
(in) (cause sb.) take part in or be occupied in sth.（使）从事；（使）忙于 • employ sb.; hire sb.雇用；聘用 • use or attract (sb.'s thoughts, time, etc.) 使全神贯注；引起（注意）；占用（时间） cling engage v. eg. He is engaged just now. 他正有事。 Tom is engaged to Anne. 汤姆已与安妮订婚。 This seat is engaged. 此座已定出。 more
practice We engage him as technical adviser. 我们聘请他担任技术顾问。 His good nature engages everyone. 他善良的性情吸引每个人。 Work engages much of her time. 工作占去她很多时间。 more
习惯用语 eg. eg. be engaged by 为...所吸引 be engaged in 正做着, 正忙着 be engage oneself in 正做着, 正忙着 be engaged on 着手(某事), 从事(某事) more
习惯用语 be engaged upon 着手(某事), 从事(某事) be engaged to 同...订婚 be engage oneself to 同...订婚 be engaged with 正与...接洽; 正忙于, 从事 engage for 应承, 保证, 担保; 负责 engage upon 开始(某种职业) engage on 开始(某种职业) engage with
1) try hard or repeatedly to persuade (sb.) 力劝2)encourage or excite sb. to do sth.鼓励;催促;鞭策3) a strong wish or need 强烈愿望, 迫切需求 urge vt. eg. eg. He urged her to rest. 他催促她休息。 When my old friend Brian urged me to accept a cigarette, it was more than I could bear. 当我的老朋友布赖恩怂恿我接受一支香烟时,我实在熬不住了。 我迫切希望见到他。 I had an urge to see him. practice more
习惯用语 urge against 极力反对 urge... into doing [to do] 催促[怂恿]...做 urge on [onward, forward] 推进; 驱策 urge sth. on [upon] sb. 向某人极力陈述某事
about, of) say that one is not satisfied, unhappy 抱怨；诉苦 complain vi. eg. They complained about the food. 他们抱怨这糟糕的食物。 Almost immediately he began to complain about the weather. 他几乎马上就开始抱怨起天气来了。 Jean is always complaining about something. 琼总是满腹牢骚。 practice more
I think of him when I complain about trifles, ... (Para. 12) Meaning: I think of him when I express feelings of unhappiness about unimportant things. Notice how to use the verb "complain". We can say complain about something or complain to somebody.Here are more examples.He complained about the food to me. (or: He complained to me about the food.) 他向我抱怨饭菜不好。 They never complain about working extra time to anybody. 他们加班加点工作, 从不向任何人抱怨。When "complain" means "say that one has a pain, illness, etc.", the preposition "of" is usually used.Please read the following sentences:He went to the doctor complaining of the difficulty in breathing. 他去找医生, 说自己呼吸有困难。The little boy complained of pains in his stomach. 那小孩直叫肚子疼。