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Chapter 16 Intellectual – Part 1

Chapter 16 Intellectual – Part 1

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Chapter 16 Intellectual – Part 1

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  1. Chapter 16 Intellectual – Part 1 By J

  2. Preoperational Thinking Signs • Second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development • This stage occurs between the ages of 2-7years • This stage is often broken down into two sub stages: 2-4 years and 5-7years (transition stage) • After 7 years of age they enter the operational period • Use of symbols • Make believe play • Egocentric viewpoint • Limited focus • Children this age do not think like adults, and should not be treated like adults

  3. Measuring Intelligence • Educators use formal intelligence tests to more accurately determine the intellectual abilities of children • These results help teachers, principals to understand and meet students educational needs • First intelligence test was developed by French psychologist, Alfred Binet in 1905 • In 1916 Lewis M Terman made a major revision, and devised a way to give a persons intelligence a numerical score • Eventually was able to determine a child of any age has an IQ between 90 and 110

  4. Disadvantages of IQ tests • IQ test results are not always consistent, parents and children shouldn’t become too concerned • No test gives an absolute accurate estimate of an individuals mental ability • Influences can effect the score such as: physical/emotional stability during test, limited experiences, unfamiliarity with language • IQ tests do not tell much about specific abilities, different strengths and weakness

  5. Screening Instruments • These provide an overview of a child's level of development in all areas • If a child falls of the “normal”, than an in depth assessments of skills can be done • These evaluations help identify problem areas and guide parents

  6. Everyday learning opportunities • Wide variety experiences provide more learning if a parent shares them with a child • Look for opportunities to talk with children • Use positive comments, this can encourage interest • Questions help children think in new ways and encourages organizing thoughts into answers • Explanations/suggestions or asking a child’s advice can be helpful • Included in household tasks such as shopping, cooking, chores, this develops responsibility, maturity, independence • Answer in simple terms with correct names, so they can understand • Encourage positive attitudes, unembarrassed, natural environment • Learning should be an everyday family centered event

  7. Reading/Art/Music • This early school stage is a period which children develop an interest in one or more areas • Parents should take the time to read to them • Books provide opportunity to learn about world • Learning will be made easier • 4-6 year old enjoying reading stories that are different from own life-style • Children appreciate humor and unusual situations • Shows ability to separate reality and fantasy

  8. Reading/Art/Music • Art helps children express their feelings • Children should be encouraged to experiment • No “correcting” ridiculing or “lessons” • It should enjoyable not a “production” • Ask about the painting/praise • Singing rhythm games are fun (4-6) • Many children are introduced to singing by finger plays • Enjoy simple repetitive songs • Help develop children's interest in rhythm

  9. Chapter 16 Intellectual – Part 2

  10. The School Experience • It is vital that they develop a good attitude at outset • Children who have had a bad experience with classmates or a teach can develop negative feelings about school • Bad feelings keep them from learning

  11. Learning Disabilities • Learning disabled have difficulties with academic achievement and progress • Learning disabled show and uneven pattern of development • Environmental disadvantage and mental retardation/emotional disturbance are not reasons for learning problems • 6 to 10 percent of the school aged population is learning disabled • Little is known about causes of learning disabilities • Early warning signs of learning disabilities: problems with reading, mathematics, comprehension, writing, spoken language, reasoning abilities. • Learning disabilities typically affect 5 general areas: Spoken Language, Written language, Arithmetic, Reasoning, memory

  12. Pointers for parents with children with disabilities • Take time to listen to your children as much as you can • Love them by touching them. Hugging, tickling ,wrestling (need lots of physical contact) • Look for/encourage strengths, interest, abilities • Reward them with praise, good words, smiles • Accept them for what they are, be realistic • Involved them in rules and regulations • Help correct their errors and mistakes • Don’t nag • Reasonable chores, regular responsibility • Provide toys, games • Read enjoyable stories, ask questions, discuss, reread • Reduce distracting aspects of their environment

  13. Children and Learning disabilities • Learning disorders is a term for a wide variety of learning problems • Learning disability is not a problem with intelligence or motivation • Kids are smart like everyone else • Children with learning disabilities see, hear, and understand things differently • This causes problems with learning new things • Most common: reading, writing, math, reasoning, listening, and speaking

  14. Gifted and Talented Children • 3 to 10 percent of nations students are gifted • Gifted children are children with an IQ of 130+ • Children may also be talented in an area that does not show up well on an IQ test • These children have special needs for recognition, appreciate and for challenging pursuits in which they can be successful • Gifted and talented children need to be free from feelings of inferiority, superiority or being different • They also need time with other gifted learners • Benefit from play with a variety of children • Parent/teachers should avoid overwhelming gifted and talented children with unrealistic expectations • Need encouragement, opportunities leadership, creativity • Easily bored and frustrated • Exhibit recognize signs, by age two • Talk early, use complete sentence, demonstrate large vocabulary • Read before school age, highly curious, ask challenge question • Schools offer special educational programs • Enrichment programs, special classes are even special schools

  15. Speech Development • Language ability most dependable indicators of intelligence • Speech reveals child’s interests, personality • Gained knowledge of language by listening • As children grow their vocabulary will increase • Sentences will become more complex • Articulation improves dramatically • Age three, say 30% of their words correctly • By age 6 increased to 90% • This improvement depends on physical development • Some sounds are more difficult to make than others • Child’s vocabulary increase rapidly during this period • A normal developing 6 year old can understand and use approximately 2,500 words

  16. Speech difficulties • Children who speak very little are not yet comfortable with the language • These children have trouble keeping up • They will not be ready to read • Children need to hear and be encouraged to use languages

  17. Bibliography • Learning Disabilitieshttp://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/learning/learning_disabilities.shtml (March , 2012) 2. YouTubehttp://www.Youtube.com3. The Developing Child    Holly E. Brisbane. Glencoe Division 1994.