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Chapter 3 Human Development

Chapter 3 Human Development

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Chapter 3 Human Development

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  1. Chapter 3Human Development

  2. Developmental psychology: The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities Developmental level: An individual’s current state of physical, emotional, and intellectual development

  3. Periods of Development Prenatal- conception to birth Infancy- shortly after birth until walking securely Early Childhood- 15/18 months to age 6 Middle Childhood-ages 6 to 12 Adolescence- beginning of pubescence until full social maturity is reached Young adulthood- ages 19 to 25 Adulthood- ages 26 to 40 Maturity- 41 plus Senescence- varies per individual

  4. Heredity Heredity (nature): Genetic transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to their children DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): Molecular structure shaped like a double helix that contains coded genetic information

  5. Genes Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information Dominant: The gene’s feature will appear each time the gene is present Recessive: The gene’s feature will appear only if it is paired with another recessive gene Still only 25%chance trait will be expressed (Figure 3.3, Page 80)

  6. Fig. 3-3, p. 80

  7. Fig. 3-1, p. 80

  8. Fig. 3-2, p. 80

  9. Prenatal Issues Congenital problem: A problem or defect that occurs during prenatal development; “birth defect” (e.g., virus in the womb) Genetic disorder: Problem caused by inherited characteristics from parents (e.g., cystic fibrosis)

  10. Teratogens (teh-RAT-un-jens) Anything capable of directly causing birth defects (e.g., narcotics, radiation, cigarette smoke, lead, and cocaine) Nonheritable (not inherited)

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Caused by repeated heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy Infants: Have low birth weight, a small head, body defects, and facial malformations Lack cupid’s bow, the bow-shaped portion of the upper lip (look in the mirror to see)

  12. p. 82

  13. Environments: Deprivation and Enrichment Deprivation: Lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love Enrichment: When an environment is deliberately made more complex and intellectually stimulating and emotionally supportive • Environment (=Nurture): All external conditions that affect a person, especially the effects of learning

  14. Fig. 3-5, p. 84

  15. Temperament Temperament: The inherited physical “core” of personality; includes sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and typical mood (Kagan, 2000)

  16. Temperments of Newborn Babies Based on research conducted by Chess &Thomas,1986 - Easy children: 40%; relaxed and agreeable -Difficult children: 10%; moody, intense, easily angered -Slow-to-warm-up children: 15%; restrained, unexpressive, shy - Remaining children: Do not fit into any specific category

  17. Newborns (Neonates) and their Reflexes All reflexes are automatic responses (i.e., they come from nature, not nurture) Grasping reflex: If an object is placed in the neonate’s palm, she’ll grasp it automatically Rooting reflex: Lightly touch the infant’s cheek and he’ll turn toward the object and attempt to nurse; helps infant find bottle or breast Sucking reflex: Touch an object or nipple to the infant’s mouth and she’ll make rhythmic sucking movements Moro reflex: If a baby’s position is abruptly changed or if he is startled by a loud noise, he will make a hugging motion

  18. Breast Crawl Instinctive movements newborns make to initiate breast feeding Feet kick mother’s abdomen Hands Crawl to breast and nurse

  19. Fig. 3-6, p. 86

  20. Fig. 3-8, p. 87

  21. Maturation Physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system Increased muscular control occurs in patterns; order of maturation is almost universal Cephalocaudal: From head to toe Proximodistal: From center of the body to the extremities

  22. Fig. 3-9, p. 88

  23. Emotional Development Basic emotions: Anger, fear, joy; appear to be unlearned Social smile: Smiling elicited by social stimuli; like seeing a parent’s face Affectional needs: Emotional needs for love and affection; Universal among humans

  24. Social Development Development of self-awareness, attachment to parents/caregivers, and relationships with other children/adults Basically equates to awareness in relation to others

  25. Attachment Emotional attachment: Close emotional bond that infants form with parents, caregivers, or others Separation anxiety: Crying and signs of fear when a child is left alone or is with a stranger; generally appears around 8-12 months

  26. Quality of Infant Attachment (Ainsworth) Secure: Stable and positive emotional bond Insecure-avoidant: Anxious emotional bond; tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver Insecure-ambivalent: Anxious emotional bond; desire to be with parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited with mother

  27. Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development Piaget believed that all children passed through a set series of stages during their cognitive development; like Freud, he was a stage theorist Piaget and Vygotsky:

  28. Piaget: Assimilation Application of existing mental patterns to new situations; new situation is “assimilated” to existing mental schemes

  29. Piaget: Accommodation Existing ideas are changed to fit new requirements; mental schemes are changed to accommodate new information More advanced form of cognitive processing

  30. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

  31. Four Stages of Piagetian Cognitive Development

  32. The Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 Years) All sensory input and motor responses are coordinated; most intellectual development here is nonverbal Object permanence: Concept that objects still exist when they are out of sight

  33. The Preoperational Stage (2-7 Years) Children begin to use language and think symbolically, yet their thinking is still intuitive and egocentric Intuitive thinking: makes little use of reasoning and logic Egocentric thinking: Child is unable to accommodate viewpoints of others; thoughts are self-centered

  34. The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 Years) Children become able to use concepts of time, space, volume, and number BUT in ways that remain simplified and concrete, not abstract Piaget’s Conservation: Mass, weight, and volume of matter remain unchanged even when the shape or appearance of objects changes

  35. The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 Years) Piaget’s Reversibility of Thought Relationships involving equality or identity can be reversed If A=B then B=A

  36. Fig. 3-16, p. 98

  37. The Formal Operations Stage (11 Years and Up) Thinking now includes abstract, theoretical, and hypothetical ideas Abstract principles: Concepts and examples removed from specific examples and concrete situations Hypothetical possibilities: Suppositions, guesses, or projections

  38. Grow 2 – 3 inches and add 6 pounds a year Increased large-muscle coordination Better hand-eye coordination Significant gains in fine motor control Girls – by age 12: 94% of adult height attained Boys –by age 12: 84% of adult height attained Slightly more muscle mass in boys Slightly more body fat in girls Physical Changes Growth and Motor Development From 6 to 12

  39. Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Children’s cognitive development is heavily influenced by sociocultural factors Children’s thinking develops through dialogues with more capable people

  40. Zone of Proximal Development Range of tasks a child cannot yet master alone even though they are close to having the necessary mental skills; they need guidance from a skilled partner in order to complete the task

  41. Scaffolding Framework or temporary support. Adults help children learn how to think by scaffolding, or supporting, their attempts to solve a problem or to discover principles Scaffolding must be responsive to a child’s needs

  42. Contexts of Development Critical period Sensitive period On-time events When most members of a society experience events such as marriage Off-time events Atypical development Mental retardation, psychopathology

  43. Parenting Styles (Baumrind, 2005)

  44. Effective Parenting Take a moment to consider the components of effective parenting. What are these components? Discuss with your neighbor Influence of parents on children:

  45. Authoritarian Parents Enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority Children tend to be emotionally stiff and lacking in curiosity

  46. Overly Permissive Give little guidance Allow too much freedom, or don’t hold children accountable for their actions Children tend to be dependent and immature and frequently misbehave

  47. Authoritative Provide firm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection Children tend to be competent, self-controlled, independent, and assertive

  48. Types of Child Discipline Power assertion: Using physical punishment or a show of force (e.g., removing toys or privileges) Withdrawal of love: Withholding affection Management techniques: Combine praise, recognition, approval, rules, and reasoning to encourage desirable behavior

  49. Effective Parenting- Authoritative Have stable rules of conduct (consistency) Show mutual respect, love, encouragement, and shared enjoyment Have effective communication You-message: Threats, name-calling, accusing, bossing, criticizing, or lecturing (avoid this) I-message: Tells children the effect their behavior had on you (use this)