Agenda [Copy]: How did the church influence life in medieval Europe? • Do Now [Don’t copy – simply address all of the below listed queries]: Write down your answers. 1. As per the first Amendment of U.S. Constitution [the main governing laws of America], consider the separation between church and state in the United States [the church & gov’t simply don’t mix. They are and shall remain separate]. Why the separation? 2. In correlation [connection] to homework#4, what does this separation mean for the church, the U.S. government and all citizens? 3. State whether you think the separation is positive or negative. Why? Explain your response.
Section 3: The Power of the Church Main Idea Reform and changes swept through the Christian Church, one of the most influential institutions in medieval Europe. • Today’s Focus • What was the nature and influence of religion in the Middle Ages? • What led to the growth of papal power in Europe? • What changes in monasticism were introduced in the Middle Ages?
Chapter 13 - The Rise of the Middle AgesSection 5: The Power of the Church Notre Dame de Paris: Construction began:1163 Completed :1345
Objective I In connection to homework# 4 and your understanding of 13.3, create a chart that demonstrates the hierarchy [a pyramid] of the medieval church from top to bottom. Give a brief description of each category of hierarchy and duties/responsibilities.
Objective 2 Put yourselves in the shoes of a medieval European. Who might you fear more, the church or king? Why? Specify: Compare the powers of church and king [please write it out].
Answer/response to objective II Always keep in mind that the powers of excommunication and interdict often seemed more mighty and frightening than the powers of the monarch/king. True, a king might imprison or even execute you, but if the church excommunicated a person, he/she would not only be shunned [socially, politically and economically banished/ostracized] in life, but also doomed for eternity. With the church, one fears social banishment in their lifetime and eternal damnation in the next life, death (possibly in hell).
Section 5: The Power of the Church Throughout the Middle Ages, the church was one of the few sources of leadership and stability that people could rely upon. One historian has noted that “The continuity and the authority of the Church of Rome stood out in marked contrast against the short-lived kingdoms which rose and fell in the early Middle Ages.” As a result, the Catholic church became one of medieval Europe’s most powerful and enduring institutions.
From 590 to 1517, the Roman Church dominated the western world. The Roman Catholic Church controlled religion, philosophy, morals, politics, art and education.
The Medieval Catholic Church • filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. • monasticism: • St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. • provided schools for the children of the upper class. • inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. • libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. • monks missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory VII, though unpopular, initiated many reforms for the church. These reforms became known as the Gregorian reforms. Pope Gregory Stated: The Church was founded by God Alone The pope alone can with right be called universal. The pope alone can depose or reinstate bishops The pope’s name alone can be spoken in churches The pope may depose of emperors The pope may be judged by no one The Roman Church has never erred; nor will it err to all eternity, the Scripture bearing witness.
The Church Supreme • The attempts to make the church more powerful did not end with Gregory VII. During the 12th and 13th century the Popes continued to strengthen the papacy. • Pope Innocent III declared the Act of Papal Supremacy. He stated that the Pope was, • “lower than God but higher than man . . . Judges all and is judged by no one. . . . Princes have power on earth, priests over the soul. As much as the soul is worthier than the body, so much worthier is the priesthood than the monarchy . . . NO king can reign rightly unless he devoutly serve Christ’s vicar.”
Handout: Examine the church “flex its ecclesiastical muscles” Examine a handout focused on the two most powerful institutions in middle age (Monarchy vs. the Church/Pope) Europe opposing one another over power/prestige – Let’s get ready to rumble….
The Power of the Medieval Church • bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. • the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. • tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. • curb heresies crusades; Inquisition • tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. • Peter’s Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].
I. Religion in the Middle Ages Medieval church had broad political power, performed many government functions Emperor Henry IV waited three days to meet Pope Gregory VII and the Countess Matilda
I. Religion in the Middle Ages By 1200s, the church was a leading landowner and wealthiest institution in Europe
I. Religion in the Middle Ages Clergy was organized in strict hierarchy of rank –parish priest was at bottom Saint John Marie-Baptiste Vianney is the patron saint of parish priests
I. Religion in the Middle Ages Priests directly served people in parish; administered five of the seven sacraments
I. Religion in the Middle Ages Bishops managed a diocese; performed sacraments of confirmation and holy orders
I. Religion in the Middle Ages Kings or nobles selected bishops based on family connections or political power
I. Religion in the Middle Ages Archbishops managed a group of several dioceses called an archdiocese The chief diocese in a province. To help things run smoothly, one bishop in each province has seniority. He's an archbishop and his diocese is an archdiocese.
I. Religion in the Middle Ages Cardinals most important and powerful clergy; advised pope on legal and spiritual matters Raphael, Portrait of a Cardinal, 1510-12 Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi, Raphael 1518
I. Religion in the Middle Ages Pope held supreme authority during his pontificate; head of ecclesiastical courts; power to excommunicate Galileo in front of the Inquisition, 12 April 1633
I. Religion in the Middle Ages 1054 - Bishop of Constantinople rejected Pope Leo IX’s authority; excommunication split church into Roman Catholics and Orthodox Pope Benedict XVI and Patriarch Bartholomew
II. Monasticism Monasticism - life in religious communities; monks in monasteries and nuns in convents
II. Monasticism Monks and nuns served God through fasting, prayer, and self-denial A monk at work in a monastic scriptorium
II. Monasticism Benedict established monastery in the 500s; Benedictine Rule governed monks’ lives
II. Monasticism Benedictine Rule abandoned in 900s after rulers began appointing unqualified abbots
II. Monasticism New monastery at Cluny, France, reestablished Benedictine Rule; became most influential monastery in Europe
III. The Church and Medieval Life Church leaders were feudal lords and political advisors; popes held political and spiritual power over monarchs
III. The Church and Medieval Life The church had the power to tax; parish priests collected a tithe - one-tenth of a person’s income
III. The Church and Medieval Life Major problems in the church were lay investiture and simony Jan Hus, a Bohemian preacher who called for Church reforms, was declared a heretic by the Church. Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance and burned at the stake in 1415.
III. The Church and Medieval Life Heretics - people who denied the church’s principles
Reflective overview Based on today’s class work and last night’s homework, students are asked to: • Define and then examine some of the key roles the church played in society throughout the medieval ages. In a nutshell, if any, what was the church’s purpose? • The monarch vs. the church, of the two, which institution had the most influence and power throughout this period? Proof? Back-up your response with some form of evidence.