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Sugar Substitutes

Sugar Substitutes

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Sugar Substitutes

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  1. Sugar Substitutes Two types: • Artificial Sweeteners • Not metabolized by the body (no kcals) • Metabolized by the body • Sugar Replacers

  2. Sugar Substitutes: Artificial Sweetners Not metabolized by the body: • Saccharin (Sweet and Low) • Rapidly excreted in the urine; does not accumulate in the body • 300-700 x as sweet as sugar • Used in soft drinks and as a tabletop sweetener (coffee, on cereal) Believed not to cause cancer. NO WARNING LABEL REQUIRED

  3. Sugar Substitutes: Artificial Sweetners Not metabolized by the body: • Acesulfame – K • 200 x as sweet as sugar • Used in chewing gum, dry beverage mixes, breath mints, cough drops

  4. Sugar Substitutes: Artificial Sweetners Not metabolized by the body: • Sucralose (Splenda) • Derivative of sucrose – replaced 3 hydroxyl groups of sucrose with chlorine atom  not recognized as CHO so it passes through GI tract unabsorbed • 600 x as sweet as sugar: SWEETEST • can be used in baking, table top sweetener, dairy products, soft drinks

  5. Sugar Substitutes: Artificial Sweetners Metabolized by the body: • Aspartame (Equal-approved in 1981 as Nutrasweet) • made up of 2 amino acids and a methyl group so has 4kcal/gm like protein, but since so little is used no caloric effect • dangerous for people with PKU – phenylketonuria since it continues the a.a. phenlalanine which people with PKU cannot metabolize  accumulation causes mental retardation • 200 x as sweet as sugar • used as a tabletop sweetener

  6. Sugar Substitutes: Sugar Replacers Sugar Alcohols • occur naturally in fruits and vegetables: mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, isomalt, lactitol, maltitol • used in “sugar free foods” but yield kcalories (1/2 much as sucrose): hard candies, jams, jellies, gum, cookies • side effects: gas, abdominal pain, diarrhea – may act as a laxative! • body absorbs sugar alcohols less quickly than sugar – have a lower glycemic effect