The reproductive system
Related terms • Gynec/o women, female • Cervic/o cervix-neck • Colp/o vagina • Hyster/o uterus • Metr/o, metri/o uterus • Uter/o uterus • Lact/o milk
Men/o menses, menstruation • My/o, myom/o muscle, muscle tumor • Nat/I birth • Obstetr/o pregnancy and child birth • O/o egg • Ovari/o ovary • Ovul/o egg
Salping/o fallopian tubes • Mamm/o breast • Mast/o breast • Vagin/o vagina • Vulv/o vulva- • Arche beginning (menarche the first period) • Cyesis pregnancy
Endowithin • In in • Intra within • Primi first • Retrobackward
Gravida pregnant • Parous bearing, bringing • Rrhea discharge • Multi many • Nulli no, not, none • Prebefore • Malacia softening
-gravidaPregnancy Nulligravida (never pregnant), primigravida (first-time pregnant), multigravida (many pregnancies) • -paraLive birth Nullipara (no live births), multipara (many live births) • EXAMPLE: On an OB patient's chart you may see the abbreviations: gravida 3, para 2. This means three pregnancies, two live births. The OB patient, currently pregnant with her third baby, will become a Gravida 3, Para 3 after giving birth.
Endometriosis • a condition involving colonization of the abdominal/pelvic cavity with islands of endometrial tissue. • Endometriumis the lining layer of the uterus which sloughs off with each menstruation. • If endometrial tissue flushes up the uterine tube and spills into the abdomen (peritoneal cavity), the clots of endometrial tissue can attach to abdominal organs such as the bladder, rectum, intestinal loops and then cycle along with the uterus in response to monthly changes in ovarian hormones. • Bleeding into the abdomen irritates the lining membrane, the peritoneum, and causes abdominal pain.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) • Bacteria can make their way up the vagina, through the uterus, and traverse the uterine tubes which open into the abdominal cavity. • Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, the peritoneum, causes abdominal pain. • Chronic Inflammation of the uterine tubes can occlude them resulting in infertility.
Prolapsed uterus • The uterus is almost directly above the vagina. In fact, the cervix, the neck region, of the uterus extends into the upper vagina. Ligaments hold the uterus in proper position so that it does not prolapse or herniate into the vagina. • Severe prolapse can result in the uterine cervix protruding from the vaginal opening. • Surgical repair is typically required to restore the uterus to its proper anatomical position.
Ectopic pregnancy • Greek, "out of place“ • A pregnancy implanted anywhere outside of the uterus. • The uterine tube (Fallopian tube) is the most common location, also called a "tubal pregnancy". • The abdominal cavity is the least common location. • When it occurs, it is a surgical emergency, because the uterine tube cannot sustain tremendous expansion like the uterus. • Eventually, the uterine tube will rupture with severe, possibly fatal, hemorrhaging.
Fraternal twins 2 infants born of the same pregnancy from 2 seperate ova fertilized by 2 different sperm • Identical twins 2 infants resulting from division of 1 fertilized egg into 2 distinct embryos
Eclampsia • )toxemia of pregnancy ) • A serious and life-threatening condition that may develop during pregnancy involving hypertension, convulsions and coma. • A less severe form, preeclampsia, may develop but can be managed if identified and treated early.
Placenta previa • Latin, "leading the way“ • A placenta implanted over the cervical region of the uterus blocking the entrance to the birth canal. • Occurs in less than one percent of pregnancies, but can cause significant bleeding and require a complicated delivery.
Obstetrician- literally "midwife" in Latin. A physician specializing in the diagnosis and management of pregnancy and delivering babies. • Gynecologist- a physician specializing in diseases of the female reproductive system and surgery of this area. • Most physicians currently specialize in combined practice of OB/GYN.
Hysterosalpingogram - special X-rays of the uterus and uterine tubes involving passing an opaque dye backwards up through the uterus to determine if the tubes are patent. Since the tubes are open into the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity, if patent, dye should spill out of the end of the tubes and be manifest on the X-ray.
Normal Menstruation • Menstruation typically begins when a girl is about 12 - 13 years old. • The normal length of a menstrual cycle is 21 - 35 days, the average cycle being 28 days. • Menstrual periods typically last 4 - 8 days, the average period lasting 6 days. • Menopause usually occurs around the age of 51. Many women begin to experience symptoms when they are 40 - 44 years old.
Menstruation disorders Amenorrhea Absence of menstruation can be either primary or secondary. • Primary amenorrhea is considered when a girl does not begin to menstruate by the age of 16. • Secondary amenorrhea occurs when periods that were previously regular stop for at least three months.
Menstruation disorders • Menorrhagia (metrorrhagia, or menometrorrhagia) Heavy bleeding includes prolonged menstrual periods or excessive bleeding.
Menstruation disorders Oligomenorrhea Light or infrequent menstruation refers to menstrual periods that occur more than 35 days apart. It usually is not a cause for concern, except if periods occur more than 3 months apart.
Andr/o male (androgen) • Cry/o cold • Crypt/o hidden • epididym/o epididymis • gon/o seed
one hormone • -pexy fixation, put in place • hydr/o water, fluid • orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o testis, testicle • Balan/o Head of the penis Balanitis • -genesis formation
prostat/o prostate gland • semin/I semen,seed • sperm/o,spermat/o spermatozoa,semen • test/o testis,testicle • varic/o varicose veins • vas/o vessel,duct; vas deferens • zo/o animal life
Sterilization Any procedure that removes an individual's ability to produce or release reproductive cells • Hermaphroditism A condition where both ovarian and testicular tissue are found in the same individual.
Hypospadias- literally "below the fleshy spike." A condition in which the external urinary meatus (opening) opens anywhere below the tip of the penis rather than at the tip. • balanoplasty surgical repair of hypospadias using the foreskin of the head • Hydrocele- a fluid filled sac partially surrounding the testis. Manifests itself as a swelling on the side of the scrotum. May cause discomfort. Can be surgically corrected.
Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum. This usually represents failure of the testis to move, or "descend," during fetal development from an abdominal position, through the inguinal canal, into the scrotum. • Orchiopexy (or orchidopexy) is a surgery to move an undescended testicle into the scrotum and permanently fix it there.
Varicocele Dilated and twisted veins of the testis, sort of "hemorrhoids" of the scrotum! Manifests itself as a swelling on the side of the scrotum which may look and feel like a "bag of worms." May be surgically corrected if causing discomfort. This condition may also cause reduced sperm count and male sterility due to sluggish blood flow elevating testicular temperature.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) Swelling of the prostate gland which surrounds the base of the male bladder and urethra causing difficulty urinating, and nocturia Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) PSA is a marker protein for prostate cell secretions which can be detected with a lab test. A rising PSA may be an early sign of prostate cancer, although there may be other causes including false positive tests