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Input and Output of a Processor

Input and Output of a Processor

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Input and Output of a Processor

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  1. Input and Output of a Processor Presented By Chandra Shekar Reddy.Y Computer Architecture & Design

  2. Introduction • I/O systems generally place greater emphasis on dependability & cost. • I/O systems must also plan for expandability and diversity of devices. • Performance plays a small role for I/O systems. Computer Architecture & Design

  3. Diversity of I/O systems Three characteristics are useful in organizing the wide variety of I/O systems. • Behavior : Input (read once), Output (write only) or storage • Partner : Either Human or a machine at the end of the I/O device. • Data rate : The peak rate at which the data can be transferred between the i/o devices and main memeory or processor. Ex : A key board, i/p device used by a human with data rate about 10 bytes per second. Computer Architecture & Design

  4. A typical collection of I/O devices Computer Architecture & Design

  5. Typical I/O devices Computer Architecture & Design

  6. Interfacing I/O devices to processor memory and operating systems Giving Commands to i/o devices Basically two techniques are used to address the devices. 1.Memory-mapped I/O : An i/o scheme in which portions of address space are assigned to i/o devices. Ex : Simple printer has 2 i/o device registers. • Status register : It contains done bit and error bit. • Data register : The data to be printed is put into this register. Computer Architecture & Design

  7. 2. Alternative method is to use dedicated i/o instructions in the processor. • These specify both the device no. and command word. • The processor communicates via a set of wires normally included as a part of i/o bus. • Commands can be transmitted over data lines in the bus. Ex : Intel IA32, IBM 370. Computer Architecture & Design

  8. Communicating with the processor. • Polling : The process of periodically checking the status of the i/o devices to determine the need to service the devices. Disadvantage : Waste of processor time. • Interrupt Driven i/o Systems : It employs i/o interrupts to indicate the processor that an i/o device needs attention. A system can use either vector interrupts or an exception cause register. Computer Architecture & Design

  9. The status register determines who can interrupt the computer. • A more refined blocking of interrupts is available in the interrupt mask field. • There is a bit in the mask corresponding each bit in the pending interrupt field of cause register. Computer Architecture & Design

  10. Transferring the data between a device and memory • Polling and i/o interrupts are the basic methods for implementing data transfer. • Direct Memory Access : A mechanism that provides a driver controller the ability to transfer the data directly to or from memory with out involving the processor. Computer Architecture & Design

  11. Conclusion • I/O systems are evaluated on several different characteristics : Dependability ,variety of i/o devices supported , cost . • These goals lead to widely varying schemes for interfacing i/o devices. Computer Architecture & Design

  12. References Computer Organization & Design – David Patterson John L. Hennessy. http://www.pcguide.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki http://www.amigau.com/aig Computer Architecture & Design