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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

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  1. Chapter 4

    1754-1783 The Road to Independence
  2. Chapter 4 Section 1 The French and Indian War
  3. I. Summarize the causes of the French and Indian War. Causes of War 1) France and Great Britain both claimed the land of the Ohio Valley 2) French and Indians vs. British War (1754-1763) a) final chapter in a long struggle b) George Washington, British 21 years old
  4. I. Summarize the causes of the French and Indian War. Rivalry between Britain and France 1) British colonists founded towns and planted crops 2) French colonists established forts and traded with Native Americans (Indians) 3) When Britain and France battled in Europe, the colonists fought in America 4) In Europe, the war was called the Seven Years’ War
  5. I. Summarize the causes of the French and Indian War. Albany Plan of Union 1) Plan for a union of the colonies – Ben Franklin’s idea 2) Included a union with the Iroquois Nation 3) Would create a colonial central government 4) Rejected by the colonies
  6. I. Summarize the causes of the French and Indian War. Early British Defeats 1) Major battles in western Pennsylvania 2) British used militia – armed citizens soldiers 3) Daniel Boone and George Washington - British
  7. II. Describe how the British won the French and Indian War. British Prime Minister – highest official in a parliamentary government – William Pitt declared war on France 1) Raised taxes to fight the war The Tide of War Turns 1) British troops were better prepared 2) British troops took control of Pittsburgh and Niagara 3) French retreated to Canada 4) Iroquois Nation supported the British
  8. II. Describe how the British won the French and Indian War. Fall of Quebec 1) British invaded Canada – New France – capital Quebec 2) Siege of the city – to surround an enemy in order to force surrender 3) After the fall of Quebec, eastern North America was controlled by the British
  9. II. Describe how the British won the French and Indian War. Treaty of Paris – 1763 1) Ended the French and Indian War 2) Signed by Britain, France, and Spain 3) France agreed to give Britain: a) Canada b) All land East of the Mississippi River except New Orleans 4) Spain agreed to give Britain: a) Florida 5) Britain agreed to give Spain: a) Cuba
  10. III. Analyze how the war weakened the colonists loyalty to Great Britain. The colonists began to see themselves different from the British Loss of respect for British military power American colonists did not feel the respect of Britain American colonists wanted to expand and prosper on their own
  11. Chapter 4 Section 2 Issues Behind the Revolution
  12. I. Explain how and why British policies in the colonies changed after 1763. Changing British Policy 1) King George III – King John Stewart, Prime Minister George Grenville, Prime Minister 2) Proclamation of 1763 a) Pontiac’s Rebellion – Native American protest of British rule in the Great Lakes region b) Proclamation of 1763 – closure of the region west of the Appalachian Mountains to settlers
  13. I. Explain how and why British policies in the colonies changed after 1763. Britain’s Financial Problems 1) To pay off war debts, the British parliament decided to tax the American colonies. 2) The Sugar and Quartering Acts a) Sugar Act – start of a new British policy designed to raise money b) British Navy patrolled American coasts c) Quartering Act – required colonists to provide housing and supplies for British troops
  14. II. Summarize the causes and effects of the Stamp Act. Stamp Act Congress 1) Stamp Act – tax on newspapers, legal documents, and printed materials – documents had to be stamped to prove tax paid 2) Stamp Act Congress a) stamp act effected every colonist in every colony b) NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION 3) The Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty a) boycott – refusal to buy certain goods b) Samuel Adams – Sons of Liberty Boston c) by 1765, most stamp distributors resigned or fled
  15. III. Describe how rising tensions in the colonies led to fighting at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. Townshend Acts – tax on imports from Britain 1) Colonists continued to boycott Boston Massacre 1) Sons of Liberty rebelled against British troops 2) African American, Crispus Attucks plus four more were shot 3) John Adams represented the soldiers at trial – two guilty – thumbs branded
  16. III. Describe how rising tensions in the colonies led to fighting at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. Boston Tea Party 1) British East India Company was given rights to sell tea in colonies without normal taxes 2) Sons of Liberty, dressed as Indians, dumped tea into Boston Harbor, 1773 Intolerable Acts 1) Punishment for Boston and Massachusetts
  17. III. Describe how rising tensions in the colonies led to fighting at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. First Continental Congress – 1774 1) Purpose was to unite the colonies in response to the Intolerable Acts 2) Every colony, except Georgia, sent delegates to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 3) Patrick Henry, “Give me Liberty, or Give me Death” 4) Samuel Adams – very rebellious 5) George Washington – Virginia – leader 6) John Jay – New York 7) encouraged boycotts and organized militias
  18. III. Describe how rising tensions in the colonies led to fighting at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. Fighting at Lexington and Concord 1) American rebels became known as Patriots 2) militia Patriots began to store weapons and ammo 3) Paul Revere’s ride – warned Lexington that the British were coming to seize weapons 4) Minutemen – militia Patriots like Samuel Adams and John Hancock 5) shot heard around the world began the American Revolution
  19. Chapter 4 Section 3 Ideas Behind the Revolution
  20. I. Describe the importance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense. Common Sense 1) Two Levels a. 1st – struggle for power between American colonists and Great Britain b. 2nd – the idea of colonists rethinking, the proper role of citizens, government, and the relationship between the two 2) Americans learned to demand that government respect citizens’ rights 3) Common Sense – pamphlet written by Thomas Paine a. Argues that colonies should break their ties with Britain
  21. II. Identify the four parts of the Declaration of Independence. Second Continental Congress – second gathering of representatives from the colonies Olive Branch Petition – King George III refused a document asking for a peaceful settlement to the conflict between the colonies and Britain. Drafting a Declaration 1) Declaration of Independence – document stating the reasons for the colonies break with Britain 2) Thomas Jefferson was chief author a) influenced by the Enlightenment – 18th century movement that emphasized science and reason as the way of improving society b) influenced by John Locke
  22. II. Identify the four parts of the Declaration of Independence. Parts of the Declaration 1) Introduction – preamble – explains purpose 2) explains political ideas on which it was based a) John Locke believed people formed governments to protect their natural rights b) natural rights are rights all people are born with c) “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness” d) people have the right to revolt and replace government if government is not acting in the best interest of the people e) Rule of Law – government must make decisions based on laws – not their personal choices Declaration is adopted 1) July 4, 1776 – delegates voted to approve
  23. Chapter 4 Section 4 Fighting for Independence
  24. I. Describe the siege of Boston and its outcome. Fighting had begun in April 1775 Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 Siege of Boston 1) 20,000 Patriots surrounded Boston 2) Battle of Bunker Hill – Boston a) Breed’s Hill and Bunker Hill in north Boston were Patriots’ strategic high ground b) British attacked Breed’s Hill three times before taking control c) Bunker Hill – Patriots ran out of ammo d) both were British victories but heavy cost (causalities) - persons killed, wounded, or missing - over 1,000 British vs. 400 Patriots
  25. I. Describe the siege of Boston and its outcome. British leave Boston 1) Patriots placed cannons so that they could shell British in the city and British ships in Boston harbor 2) Loyalists – people who remained loyal to Great Britain
  26. II. List the strengths and weaknesses of the British and American forces. 1/3 Patriots, 1/3 Loyalists or Tories, 1/3 neutral British 1) Advantages a) well equipped, disciplined, trained army b) Navy – world’s finest – supply and transport c) Loyalists and Southern African Americans d) Native Americans favored British e) 30,000 “Hessians” mercenaries – foreign soldiers who fight for pay 2) Disadvantages a) not a popular war in Europe – Europeans resented paying taxes b) hostile territory – conditions in Americans
  27. II. List the strengths and weaknesses of the British and American forces. Americans 1) Advantages a) fighting on their own territory b) experience of George Washington 2) Disadvantages a) lacked well equipped, stable, effective fighting force b) too many new recruits – experienced soldiers would go home
  28. III. Explain the importance of battles in the North between 1776 and 1777, including the American victory at Saratoga. Fighting in the North 1) Retreat from New York a) forced out of New York into Pennsylvania b) by winter 1776 – Patriots had almost collapsed Trenton and Princeton 1) Christmas 1776 – Washington led attack – led 2,400 troops across the Delaware River 2) Battle of Trenton – battle in which Washington surprised and captured the Hessian force 3) Left camp fires burning and moved at night to Princeton 4) Surprised Gen. Cornwallis and captured Princeton 5) Battles of Trenton and Princeton were important because they boosted Patriot morale
  29. III. Explain the importance of battles in the North between 1776 and 1777, including the American victory at Saratoga. Victory at Saratoga 1) British attack from the North a) Gen. Howe advanced the British into and controlled Philadelphia b) Gen. Burgoyne led British in northern New York c) British were attempting to cut New England off from other colonies d) As Americans retreated, they slowed British progress e) Battle of Saratoga – series of battles in which the Americans attacked and defeated Burgoyne’s forces f) TURNING POINT OF THE WAR g) One effect of the victory: the French agreed to openly support the Americans
  30. Chapter 4 Section 5 Winning Independence
  31. I. Explain the hardships the Americans endured during the war. Hardships 1) Washington and his troops had a lack of cloths and food 2) Winter 1777-78 at Valley Forge 3) Financing the War a) Continental Congress had no power to tax b) Continental money was not backed by gold and silver 4) Disruptions of Trade a) British blockade – isolate from outside contact by using troops or warships to prevent people or supplies from entering b) Profiteering – selling scarce items at high prices c) Inflation – substantial increase in prices of goods over a period of time
  32. II. Describe the American victories in the West and South that led to an end to the war. Fighting in the West 1) Indiana and Illinois – ½ Indians – 1778 2) Patriot Colonel George Rogers Clark regained the Ohio River Valley Fighting in the South 1) Georgia and South Carolina – 1779 – mainly Loyalists/Tories 2) Americans vs. Americans 3) British Gen. Lord Cornwallis began to invade North Carolina 4) Battle of Kings Mountain and Battle of Cowpens – Cornwallis was defeated 5) Battle of Guilford Court House – Cornwallis advanced into Virginia 6) August 1781 – Cornwallis setup camp at Yorktown – peninsula between York and James Rivers
  33. II. Describe the American victories in the West and South that led to an end to the war. Victory at Yorktown 1) Washington and French arrived from the North 2) Patriots commanded by Lafayette cut off escape from the land 3) French navy blocked British navy 4) Battle of Yorktown – fighting that ended when Cornwallis surrendered to Washington
  34. II. Describe the American victories in the West and South that led to an end to the war. Treaty of Paris (1783) 1) The victory at Yorktown resulted in the signing of the treaty 2) Signed two years later 3) Great Britain, France, Spain, United States 4) Treaty of Paris – formally ended the War for Independence a) 6 Provisions 1) Independence of the United States of America 2) USA – all land from New England to the Mississippi River and north to the Great Lakes 3) Mississippi River western border with Spanish territory 4) Florida back to Spain and served as southern border 5) British would remove troops 6) Loyalists rights restored/Tories still persecuted
  35. III. Summarize the impact of the American Revolution. 1776 – America formally declared independence 1783 – Great Britain formally accepted independence Greatest impact of the American Revolution was the spread of the idea of liberty and equality