Charles Marr Horticulture Kansas State University Plant Growth and Development
What is a Master Gardener? • To understand ‘nature' or the plant and it's environment..... • To tend, culture, or ‘improve' with sound horticultural practice... • To approach learning by ‘how it all fits together' rather than by collecting miscellaneous facts
Hortos= garden Culture= the care and tending of Horticulture Hortos was an area surrounding the greek home. It was used as an area for the growing of edible crops such as fruits, vegetables, and grapes (for wine).; It was also used as a place for outdoor living and relaxation.
Areas of Emphasis in Horticulture- Plants that have economic or aesthetic value to people.
Liberty Hyde Bailey Native of Michigan Degree in botany from Harvard Professor at Cornell Prolific author of horticultural writings Founded American Society for Horticultural Science in 1903
Horticulture is........ • A science • A business • An art A commercial industry or vocation An avocation or leisure activity The approach to horticulture is different for those involved with commercial management vs. home applications and people interactions make it even more different...
Plant Classification • artificial- vegetables, weeds, shrubs, trees • Theophrastus ‘sexual system' based on plant parts • Evolution or relationships (Darwin) • ‘Natural’ system (Linnaeus) or modern system of plant classification
Unit Example • Kingdom Plantae • Division Spermatophytae • Subdivision Angiospermae • Class Dicotyledonae • Order Rosales • Family Rosaceae • Sub family Maloideae • Genus Malus • Species domestica • Cultivar ‘Jonathan’
A Plant Key 1 Leaves not widest at apex 2. no lobes= Quercus phellos (Willow ) 2. lobes in leaves 3. bristle tips 4. 3-4 lobes= Quercus falcata (So. Red) 4. 5-9 lobes= Quercus velutina (Black) 3. no bristle tips 5. 7-11 lobest= Quercus alba (White) 5. 3-6 lobes= Quercus stellata (Post) 1. Leaves widest at apex= Quercus marilandica (Blackjack)
Pisum sativum L.- peas Syringa vulgaris- Lilac Lycopersicon esculentum- Tomato Ulmus americana- American Elm Ulmus parvifolium- Chinese Elm Ficus elastica- rubber plant Vigna sinensis- Southern pea Joe Pie Weed, Creeping Charlie, Water Grass,..... Scientific Naming Uses
Some Common Terms • variety • cultivar = cultivated variety • clone- vegetative propagated plants • series- closely related varieties • strain- improved version or variety • hybrid- crossing 2 inbred lines • tissue culture- vegetative propagation
Cell wall Cell membrane Plastids Vacuole Nucleus Sclerid Phloem Fiber Xylem vessel
Mitosis Cell Division
Reproductive Cell Division Meiosis Pollen grain(male) Egg (female)
Plant Genetics Pea 14 Lily 24 Wheat 42 Human (46) Strands of individual genetic traits (genes) on Chromosomes Chromosomes occur in ‘matched pairs’ Reproductive cell (egg or pollen grain) one set Normal plant cell two sets (diploid) Cells treated with special chemical four sets (tetraploid) Crossing a ‘diploid’ with a ‘tetraploid’ results in a ‘triploid’ or a cell with 3 sets of chromosomes (and is sterile)
Plant Parts • Roots • Stems • Leaves • Flowers and Fruit Meristem- area of growth apical meristem- top growth root meristem- root extension cambium- lateral growth
Tropism • Growth directed by environmental influences.. Phototropism- light Geotropism- gravity Hydrotropism-water Thigmotropism-touch Plant growth regulating compounds (hormones) control cell growth or development.
Root cap Conducting Tissue Root hair Root Meristem Root
Conducting cells start to form Root meristem Root cap
Water Nutrients Certain chemicals Root Hair
Phloem Xylem Cambium Shoot Meristem Stem Xylem
Vascular Bundles (Conducting tissues) Cambium
Bilateral (bidirectional) flow Cooling of leaves (and atmosphere) About 90% of the water flowing through the plant is used for transport-not for plant reactions. Sugars produced in leaves Water and Nutrients
Veination Shape Shape of tip and base Leaf margins (edges) Lobes or sections Leaf
Leaf patterns of development can be used to identify specific species of plant. Formation of the edge (margin) of the leaf. Lobes or indentations in the margin.
Opposite Alternate Whorled Leaf Arrangement Roseate
Epidermal cells Guard Cells Stomate
Complete or Perfect Flower Incomplete or Imperfect Flower
Complete flower= male and female parts • Male flowers in one location, female flowers on another on the same plant (monoecious) • Male flowers on one plant, female flowers on another (dioecious) • Complete flowers but not self-fruitful (apple, some plums, etc)
Hypocotyl (root) Epicotyl (shoot) Cotyledon
Sequential development of different plant parts Stems y Total Leaves Roots Flowers Time in weeks