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Plant Growth & Development

Plant Growth & Development

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Plant Growth & Development

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  1. Plant Growth & Development By: Johnny M. Jessup Agriculture Teacher/FFA Advisor

  2. Introduction • There are 7 plant processes that effect growth which are…. • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Absorption • Transpiration • Translocation • Reproduction • Osmosis

  3. Photosynthesis • Process by which green plants manufacture food. • The beginning of the food chain for all living things on earth.

  4. Photosynthesis • Carbon dioxide and water are combined in the presence of light to make sugar and oxygen. • The Formula is…. 6CO2 + 6H2O + 672Kcal C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon Dioxide Water Light Glucose Sugar Oxygen

  5. Respiration • The process through which plant leaves, stems, and roots consume oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. • Plants produce much more oxygen through photosynthesis then they use through respiration.

  6. Photosynthesis vs. Respiration

  7. Absorption • The process by which plant roots take in water, air, & nutrients and conduct them to the stem.

  8. Transpiration • The process by which plants roots lose water from leaves and stems through evaporation.

  9. Translocation • The process by which food and nutrients are moved within a plant from one plant part to another. • Water and minerals move from the roots up to the leaves and food moves from the leaves down to the roots.

  10. Translocation

  11. Reproduction • The plant process that increases plant numbers, usually from seeds.

  12. Asexual Propagation • Budding • Grafting • Layering • Stem Cuttings • ETC

  13. Asexual Propagation

  14. Osmosis • The process by which minerals enter the plant through cell walls. • The process by which water enters the plant through cell walls.

  15. Photoperiodism • The response of plants to different amounts of light regarding their flowering and reproduction cycles.

  16. Photoperiodism • Short day plants require long nights to flower. • Examples are poinsettia and azalea.

  17. Photoperiodism • Long day plants require short nights to flower. • Examples are African violets and spinach.

  18. Phototropism • The tendency for plants to grow toward a light source

  19. Moisture • 90% of plant tissue is made of mostly water. • Water carries nutrients throughout the plant

  20. Plant Processes • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Absorption • Transpiration • Translocation • Reproduction • Osmosis

  21. Stages of Plant Growth • Juvenile • When the plant first starts to grow from a seed.

  22. Stages of Plant Growth • Vegetative • The second stage of growth that begins after the plant begins photosynthesis and actively grows leaves, stems, and roots prior to flowering

  23. Stages of Plant Growth • Reproductive • When plant produces flowers, seeds, and fruits.

  24. Stages of Plant Growth • Dormant • When plant rests or grows very little if any.

  25. Hardiness Zones

  26. Hardiness Zones • North Carolina • Zones 6 to 8 • Plants are categorized by zones based on the average minimum temperature • Zone 6 • -10 to 0 degrees F • Zone 7 • 0 to 10 degrees F • Charlotte and Raleigh • Zone 8 • 10 to 20 degrees F • Havelock

  27. Plant Cell Growth

  28. Plant Cells • Are the basic unit of life. • Nucleus and a mass of protoplasm contained with a plasma membrane.

  29. Nucleus • Location of the plant’s genetic and hereditary make-up.

  30. Protoplasm • The living matter of the cell. • The gel matrix inside the cell.

  31. Plasma Membrane • Surrounds protoplasm and allows for exchange of nutrients and gases into and out of the cell.

  32. Cell Wall • The rigid structure that provides support for the cell and thus the whole plant.

  33. Other Cell Structures • Chloroplasts • Vacuole • Plastids • Mitochondrion

  34. The Plant Cell

  35. Plant Tissue • A group of cells with similar origin and function. • Classified according to their…. • Origin • Structure • Physiology

  36. Origin & Function • Meristematic • Near the tip of stems and roots where cell division and enlargement occur. • Vascular Cambium • Increase growth in diameter of stems.

  37. Structure • Simple • Usually one type of cell. • Complex • Several types of cells.

  38. Simple Tissues • Epidermal • One-cell thick, outer layer, protects, prevents water loss. • Sclerenchyma • Have thickened cell walls and contain fibers to give strength and support to plant structures.

  39. Complex Tissues • Collenchyma • Have thick cell walls that strengthen and support plant structures. • Parenchyma • Fleshy part of plant that stores water and nutrients.

  40. The Asexual Cycle - Vegetative • Vegetative • Growth and development of buds, roots, leaves, and stems.

  41. The Asexual Cycle - Vegetative • Cell elongation • Stage when cells enlarge. • Cell differentiation • Stage when cells specialize.

  42. The Asexual Cycle - Reproductive • Reproductive or flowering • Plant develops flower buds that will develop into…. • Flowers • Fruits • Seeds

  43. Growth Hormones • Plants produce chemical substances called hormones that inhibit or promote growth. • Common plant hormones are…. • Inhibitors • Cytokinins • Gibberellins • Auxins

  44. STOP Inhibitors • Hasten fruit ripening, inhibit or restrain seed germination and stem elongation.

  45. Cytokinins • Hormones that work with auxins to stimulate cell division.

  46. Gibberellins • Hormones that stimulate cell elongation, premature flowering, and breaking of dormancy.

  47. Auxins • Hormones that speed plant growth by stimulating cell enlargement.

  48. Effects of Light, Moisture, Temperature, & Nutrients on Plants

  49. Light • Necessary because of photosynthesis. • Photoperiodism • The response of plants to different amounts of light regarding their flowering and reproduction cycles.