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13.5 Plant Growth and Development

13.5 Plant Growth and Development

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13.5 Plant Growth and Development

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  1. 13.5 Plant Growth and Development Pages 605-612

  2. Walking palm • The adventitious roots in the shade die and new roots in the direction of the sun form.

  3. Growth • Increase in size

  4. Differentiation • A cell becomes specialized to perform a particular function.

  5. Apical meristem • found at the tips of plant’s buds, stems and roots. • primary growth occurs here • plant height increases

  6. Lateral meristem • found at the sides of plant’s buds, stems and roots. • causes secondary growth • increases the width of the plant

  7. Primary Growth • Apical meristem cells divide and elongate • Differentiation into epidermal, parenchyma or vascular cell types.

  8. Shoot apical meristem becomes stems, leaves and reproductive organs • Root apical meristem has three zones: • Zone of maturation • Zone of elongation • Zone of cell division

  9. Secondary growth • Only in woody species after first year. • Example: vascular cambium and cork cambium

  10. Light • Photoreceptor- a molecule that reacts when struck by light of a certain intensity and/or wavelength. • Some seeds need light to germinate Example: lettuce • Some seeds need darkness to germinate Example: lilly

  11. Photoperiod • Plants respond to daylength • Timing of flowers Example: Spinach- long daylength Example: Tulip-short daylength

  12. Macronutrients • Large quantities (more than 1g/kg of dry mass) Examples: N, P, K

  13. Carbon • From carbon dioxide in the air • Carbon backbone of organic molecules

  14. Hydrogen • From water

  15. Oxygen • From the air

  16. Nitrogen • Nitrates and ammonia • Proteins, DNA, RNA, chlorophyll chlorosis

  17. Phosphorus • From hydrogen phosphite ion • For DNA, RNA, membranes

  18. Potassium • From K+ ions • For activation of enzymes and cellular transport

  19. Calcium • From calcium ion • For cell walls, membrane transport

  20. Sulfur • From sulfate ion • For proteins

  21. Magnesium • From magnesium ion • For chlorophyll, enzyme activation

  22. Micronutrients • Nutrients needed less than 100 mg/kg of dry mass. • B, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn • Used for Chlorophyll synthesis, cell division, enzyme production

  23. Temperature • Opening and closing stomata • Timing of seed germination • Timing of flowering

  24. Soil • Medium to anchor roots • Retains water and nutrients • Air • pH