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Beyond Access: Self-Advocacy is a Measurable DS Outcome (That You Need)!

Beyond Access: Self-Advocacy is a Measurable DS Outcome (That You Need)!

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Beyond Access: Self-Advocacy is a Measurable DS Outcome (That You Need)!

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  1. Beyond Access: Self-Advocacy is a Measurable DS Outcome (That You Need)! Presented by: MikaelSnitker-Magin, PhD, CRC, LPC Ferris State University Gavin Steiger, MS, Trinity University

  2. About your presenters MikaelSnitker-Magin Gavin Steiger 10 years working with PWD M.Ed. In Higher Ed from the University of Georgia Research interests include methods of promoting self advocacy in PWD and the transition to employment • 19 years working with PWD • PhD in Rehabilitation Psychology from UW-Madison • Research interests include youth transition & self-efficacy measures with PWD • Asst. Professor/Counselor at Ferris State U. in Big Rapids MI • LPC/CRC Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  3. Our Collective Interests—Old Wine? 1. Facilitating successful academic and vocational transitions 2. Effective, strategic, and innovative DS office management practices (image of moldy wine bottles) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  4. Facilitating transitions-- providing accommodations, learning, and measurement Innovative, strategic--limited resources with need to increase support for you, and students who need it! But, how do we apply these concepts? Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  5. Interests Cut Across Strata (image of colorful artwork depicting various layers of sediment) Students Parents DS Coordinators Administrators Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  6. Reduce Floundering “Transition is better defined as "a period of floundering that occurs for at least the first several years after adolescents leave school and attempt to assume a variety of adult roles in their communities” A. Halpern, 1991 Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  7. We ask a lot from students! From flounder to the frying pan (image of flounder fish camouflaged in sand) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  8. Dispense with esteem “Self-esteem is perhaps the greatest emotional sickness known to humans” Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  9. Assessments should be achievable (image of large jet turbine engine, partially disassembled) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  10. Research Problems • You’re not in the research business, and don’t want to be (e.g. DS counselor and/or Coordinator) • Are tasked with showing some evidence of your work, preferably to demonstrate student learning (access or success?) • Student self-disclosure is voluntary (self-selection bias) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  11. Q & A: Measure What Students Learn—Self-Advocacy (SA)? Q: How do you practically measure what students learn about Self-Advocacy? A: Build it in. Q: Which approach works best for your office? A: You likely have strong insight on this. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  12. Q & A: Measure What Students Learn—Self-Advocacy (SA)? Q: Is there a pre-made tool I can use? A: Yes Q:Do you have the time to conduct the learning assessment? A: Most often not! Q: Are tools valid and reliable? A: Some are. Choose wisely! Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  13. Self-Report Methodsof Assessment • Satisfaction and behavior surveys • Behavior checklists • Pre/post testing • Criterion referenced tools Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  14. Sample Questions for Behavior Checklists Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  15. Sample Questions for Behavior Survey How likely were you to meet with your professors and discuss your accommodation needs with them before attending this presentation? Not Likely 1 2 3 4 5 Very Likely How likely are you to meet with your professors and discuss your accommodation needs with them after attending this presentation? Not Likely 1 2 3 4 5 Very Likely Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  16. Sample Questions for Behavior Survey How frequently did the following happen? Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  17. Subjective Methods of Assessment by Staff Systematically Anecdotally DS staff member observations Discussion with student about SA • Part of the intake or accommodation renewal process • Built in through paperwork process, cues for DS coordinator Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  18. Sample Rubric for DS Staff Observations Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  19. Considerations when Developing Questions • Should have enough specificity • Should have “face validity” • Statistical Validity and Reliability • Shouldn’t be too wordy or technical in jargon • Consider the audience of respondents (e.g., reading ability, disability types, online survey sites’ compatibility with AT, etc.) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  20. Assessment Method Concerns Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  21. Consider Multiple Minority Group Membership • Athletes • LGBTQ • Race • Ethnicity • Religious beliefs • National origin • Socio-economic status • Gender identity • Age • Veterans Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  22. Try it in your office During your next appointment with a student, try role playing. It takes just a moment, and is telling, even it goes poorly! Use humor, including at yourself, to challenge potential barriers Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  23. Discussion What types of assessments do you perform? Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  24. Assessments should relate to: • Program goals • Needs of specific student population (readily usable) • Ethical guidelines, best practices, and professional standards • Any related legal standards Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  25. Professional Standard(s) • AHEAD 5.1: Use a service delivery model that encourages students with disabilities to develop independence—educate and assist; promote self-determination • OCR: No Mandate for this but can be readily incorporated into your program model, and measured. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  26. Myth: If we teach legal knowledge, they will use what they know • Generally Busted: not as likely as teaching the specific skills (low correlation) • Confidence in knowledge of disability law isn’t a sufficient Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  27. Myth: If we teach legal knowledge, they will use what they know • Erroneous information doesn’t help, either! • Learning specific accommodation request behaviors was strongly related to behavioral expectancy Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  28. Best Predictor: Specific Skills Mediating Relationship of Task-Specific Self-Efficacy Between Confidence in Knowledge Related to Disability Accommodations and Behavioral Expectations (Snitker-Magin, 2010) Task-Specific Self-Efficacy β=.49 β=.79 Confidence in legal knowledge Behavioral Expectations β=.11 Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  29. You can do this! • Technique used (verbal persuasion) • You may even like including self-advocacy learning as part of your unit’s learning measures Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  30. How do you define self-advocacy? Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  31. What is (and is not) self-advocacy? It Is It is (probably) Not A panacea for all ills Universally effective Always well-operationalized Static • Measurable • Attainable • Observable • Learnable • Formative • Dynamic • Flexible Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  32. Related to, but different than • Self-determination • Self-regulation • Self-assessment • Self-esteem • Self-efficacy • Self-initiating Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  33. But, wouldn’t it be nice? • “One cannot be all things, which would require mastery of every realm of human life” A. Bandura, 2005 Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  34. Is measuring self-advocacy learning meaningful? • Moral obligation to teach self-advocacy • Professional obligation (AHEAD standards) • Ethical obligation • Not legal obligation Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  35. Self-advocacy and program success • Recognize that success and access are different (i.e.: self advocacy is not success, but may help lead to success!) • Institutional #’s tracking – GPA, retention, graduation • DoE retention data= # of students who show up at the beginning of SO year • Descriptive data from self-studies is interesting, but not causal nor predictive. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  36. Self-advocacy and program success • Success of your program should not be predicated on the absence of OCR complaints, lawsuits, etc. although avoiding these is preferable. • Other measures are for other purposes, but maybe not yours! • Success is difficult to attribute to a specific intervention—too many variables. • You can not, nor should you, attempt to be something you’re not equipped for! Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  37. Is what you do measurable? • Yes. You probably are already teaching self-advocacy skills when you meet the students, so what not claim the credit for your good work? • It could help you get additional resources for you and your students! Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  38. Academy, Level II, OST Programs? • Usually focus part of the curriculum on teaching self-advocacy • Level II programs usually aim to teach SA skills, at added cost, and may use different title—Learning Differences, • Teach ‘life skills’, residential Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  39. Academy, Level II, OST Programs? • Occupational/Voc Skills training programs may incorporate self-efficacy and advocacy efforts as part of the on site job training • Place/train v. Train/place debate Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  40. Program Examples and Curricula • Academy, Level II, etc., —SA usually built into the curriculum, or stand alone courses • May or may not be formally measured --but are usually professed • Programs may focus on specific sub-populations—i.e., Bellevue (IQ<70), Marino (Downs Syndrome) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  41. 2. Effective, Strategic DS Office Management • Start at the top and bottom using the organization’s overarching mission and specific unit objectives • Incorporate and assess learning outcomes • Don’t reinvent the wheel. Someone else has probably already done that! • Get additional resources Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  42. Through the hierarchy • Universal aim (Top) “Ferris State University prepares students for successful careers, responsible citizenship, and lifelong learning…[and serves] our rapidly changing global economy and society” (Sounds good, doesn’t it!?) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  43. Departmental or College level • “University College: Our purpose is to provide developmental courses, educational counseling, and academic support services that will empower students enrolled at Ferris State University to achieve their educational and career goals” • Reach out to developmental faculty, advisors, and other staff Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  44. Unit Level • Our mission is to assist Ferris students, faculty, and the community with services related to academic success and career counseling. Additionally, we provide classroom accommodations for students with documented disabilities. • Collaborate with colleagues on developing consistent approaches within the unit Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  45. From Thought to Action “Having adopted an intention and an action plan, one cannot simply sit back and wait for the appropriate [accommodations] performances to appear” A. Bandura, 2001 Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  46. Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation • “FSU…prepares students for successful careers, responsible citizenship, and lifelong learning. Through its many partnerships and its career-oriented, broad-based education, Ferris serves our rapidly changing global economy and society.” Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  47. Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation • No exceptions made for students with disabilities • Cuts across the strata of student services and academic units, including teaching modalities (on-line, hybrid, satellite campuses) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  48. Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation • Accessibility and advocacy continue to make progress through accreditation bodies—Quality Matters, Learning Commission, etc. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  49. Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation • Criterion Two: Preparing for the Future: The organization’s ongoing evaluation and assessment processes provide reliable evidence of institutional effectiveness that clearly informs strategies for continuous improvement. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012

  50. Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation • Criterion Four: Acquisition, Discovery, and Application of Knowledge • The organization assesses the usefulness of its curricula to students who will live and work in a global, diverse, and technological society. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 2012