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Ancient Near Eastern Art

Ancient Near Eastern Art

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Ancient Near Eastern Art

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  1. Ancient Near Eastern Art

  2. Ancient Near Eastern Art Table of contents Sumerian Art Assyrian Art AkkadianArt Neo-Babylonian Art Achaemenid Persian Art Neo-Sumerian Art SasanianArt Babylonian Art ElamiteArt

  3. It known as the "Fertile Crescent“ because humans first learned how to use the wheel and the plow, how to control floods, and how to construct irrigation canals in settlements here. The land known as Mesopotamia lay between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers.

  4. Sumerian Art Vocabulary City-state Independent cities that were each under the protection of a different deity, represented by the rulers. Rulers and priests directed all communal activities, which were institutionalized. Cuneiform The beginning of writing, taking the form of wedge-shaped signs, simplified from pictograph signs (simplified pictures). Cylinder seal A cylindrical piece of stone engraved to produce a raised impression when rolled over clay. Used to “sign” and seal documents. Gilgamesh An epic from the 3rd millennium BCE describing Gilgamesh, the legendary kind of Uruk and slayer of the monster Huwawa. Heraldic composition A composition that is symmetrical on either side of a central figure.

  5. White Temple and ziggurat Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E. mud brick

  6. Sumerian city plans reflected their religious beliefs in that at the city’s nucleus was the god’s temple, not only the focus of local religious practice but also an administrative and economic center. Gods were holders of lands and herds and protected the city-state. White Temple and ziggurat Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E. mud brick

  7. Ziggurat Material used to construct the ziggurat was mud bricks. • The ziggurat was oriented to the cardinal points of the compass. • The "bent-axis" approach meant the stairway leading to the top did not lead directly to the temple but made several turns.

  8. When the female head from Uruk when it was seen by the Sumerians it may have had colored shell or stone in the eyes, with a wig and metal hair, and clothed in fabrics and jewels. Female head (possibly Inanna) from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E. marble approximately 8 in. high

  9. The Warka vase is the first known example of narrative relief sculpture. It depicts a religious festival in honor of the goddess Inanna. Warka Vase from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E. alabaster approximately 3 ft. high

  10. Warka Vase from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E. alabaster approximately 3 ft. high

  11. Cones and cylinders were underlying forms used to create the votive statues • The oversized eyes represented eternal wakefulness, necessary to fulfill the duty of offering prayers. • The hands gestures represented prayer. Statuettes of worhippers from Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraq ca. 2,700 B.C.E. gypsum, shell, black limestone tallest 30 in. high

  12. Statuettes of worhippers from Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraq ca. 2,700 B.C.E. gypsum, shell, black limestone tallest 30 in. high

  13. Statuettes of worhippers from Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraq ca. 2,700 B.CE. gypsum, shell, black limestone tallest 30 in. high

  14. One of the figures on the Stele of the Vultures is much taller than the others. This may indicate that he is the general and therefore of greater status. Stele of vulturesEarly Dynastic III (2600-2330 BC)Telloh (ancient Girsu), IraqLimestoneH. 1.8 m; L. 1.3 m; Th. 0.11 m

  15. Subject War Chariots defeat enemies, who are led away by soldiers and brought to the king. Peace Men carry provisions and animals to a banquet or religious ritual, which is presided over by another king. • Style • People are all shown in profile, animals in rows almost blend into each other because they are so similar, and more important figures are of a larger size. Standard of Ur from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,600 B.C.E. wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestone approximately 8 x 19 in.

  16. Are the figures depicted according to "conceptual" or "optical" principles? The figures are Conceptual­—all parts of the figures are seen at once. They are not individualized but are “types.” Standard of Ur (war side) from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,600 B.C.E. wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestone approximately 8 x 19 in.

  17. Standard of Ur (peace side) from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,600 B.C.E. wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestone approximately 8 x 19 in.

  18. The "Standard of Ur" (2600 BC)

  19. Bull-headed lyre from Tomb 789, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) ca. 2,600 B.C.E. wood, gold leaf, lapis lazuli approximately 65 in. high

  20. The meaning of the animals represented on the Harp from Ur may represent the land of the dead. Bull-headed lyre from Tomb 789, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) ca. 2,600 B.C.E. wood, gold leaf, lapis lazuli approximately 65 in. high

  21. Ram in a thicket from Tomb 789, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,600 B.C.E. gold, silver, lapis lazuli, copper, shell, red limestone, bitumen 42.6 cm. high

  22. Ram in a thicket from Tomb 789, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,600 B.C.E. gold, silver, lapis lazuli, copper, shell, red limestone, bitumen 42.6 cm. high

  23. Cylinder seal A cylindrical piece of stone engraved to produce a raised impression when rolled over clay. Used to “sign” and seal documents. Cylinder seals ca. 2,600-2,000 B.C.E. approximately 2 in. high

  24. Cylinder sealfrom the tomb of Pu-abi Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraqca. 2,600 B.C.E. approximately 2 in. high

  25. AkkadianArt Gudea of Lagash • Ensi of Lagash c. 2100 BCE. Preferred statuettes to regal trappings, and also liked statues carved of him in diorite. Hammurabi • King of Babylon from c. 1792-1750 BCE. He established a central government over south Mesopotamia. He is most famous for his code of laws, which he had inscribed on a black basalt stele. Sargon II • Assyrian king, who started the building of a royal citadel at DurSharrukin that covered 25 acres.

  26. A new political idea was introduced by the Akkadians, loyalty to the king instead of to the city. • They created the earliest portraits as life-size hollow cast sculptures. Head of an Akkadian ruler from Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca. 2,250-2,200 B.C.E. copper 14 3/8 in. high

  27. Naturalism The shape of the nose Different textures of hair and flesh Contrasting textures of beard, mustache, and hair. Abstract patterning Patterns in hair Stylistic symmetry Formal patterns of lozenges and triangles

  28. Two features of the Stele of Naram Sin that indicate his super-human status. He is larger than other figures. He is wearing the horned helmet of divinity. Victory stele of Naram-Sin from Susa, Iran ca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E. sandstone 79 in. high

  29. Victory stele of Naram-Sin from Susa, Iran ca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E. sandstone 79 in. high

  30. Neo-Sumerian Art

  31. Ziggurat at Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,100 B.C.E. mud brick

  32. Ziggurat (restored) at Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,100 B.C.E. mud brick

  33. Seated statue of Gudea holding temple plan from Girsu (modern Telloh) Iraq ca. 2,100 B.C.E. diorite 29 in. high

  34. Babylonian Art

  35. Significance of the Stele of Hammurabi Politically: It is the only code of laws from that era known in great detail. Aesthetically The god’s beard is foreshortened with diagonal lines instead of horizontal lines, suggesting recession into space. The headdress is shown in true profile with only fourhorns showing instead of all eight. Stele with code of Hammurabi from Susa, Iran ca. 1,780 B.C.E. basalt 88 in. high

  36. Stele with code of Hammurabi from Susa, Iran ca. 1,780 B.C.E. basalt 88 in. high

  37. The investiture of Zimri-Lim by the goddess Ishtar is depicted in the painting from the palace of Mari Mural paintingThe Investiture of Zimri-LimEarly 2nd millennium BCMari (Syria), Amorite palaceMural painting on white plasterH 1.75 m; W. 2.50 m

  38. The Hittites were an Anatolian people who conquered Babylon c. 1595 BCE, then left and left it to the Kassites. Lions were an early theme used in many other Near Eastern gates.

  39. ElamiteArt citadel A city walled for defense.