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    1. AP World History Review 1450-1750 Myers

    2. During the post-classical period, societies in the Americas: A) remained entirely separate from those of the Old World. B) experienced the initial contacts that led eventually to European invasion of the New World. C) failed to develop imperial forms of governmenta failure that mirrored European society. D) were united under a single government. E) abandoned Central America and migrated north.

    3. And the answer is A) remained entirely separate from those of the Old World.

    4. Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of American civilizations during the post-classic period? A) large cities based on elaborate political and economic organization B) elaborate cultural systems C) monotheism D) highly developed agriculture E) diverse civilizations

    5. And the answer is C) monotheism

    6. The northern nomadic peoples who entered central Mexico following the decline of Teotihuacn were the: A) Aztecs. B) Incas. C) Olmecs. D) Toltecs. E) Maya.

    7. And the answer is D) Toltecs

    8. The Toltec capital was established at A) Teotihuacn. B) Tula. C) Tenochtitln. D) Twantinsuyu. E) Tlotelolco.

    9. And the answer is B) Tula.

    10. What was the relationship between the Toltecs and their predecessors in central Mexico? A) The former residents of central Mexico were wiped out during the Toltec invasions. B) The entry of the Toltecs into central Mexico marks an abrupt break in the cultural development of the region. C) The Toltecs adopted the animistic religion of their predecessors, but failed to develop cities or ceremonial centers. D) The Toltecs adopted many cultural features from their predecessors to which they added a strongly military ethic and human sacrifice. E) The Toltec rejected all vestiges of previous societies.

    11. And the answer is D) The Toltecs adopted many cultural features from their predecessors to which they added a strongly military ethic and human sacrifice.

    12. How did the Aztecs view the cultural achievements of the Toltecs? A) as barbarians who lacked culture B) as slaves, fit only for conquest C) as the givers of D) as heretics, who practiced a forbidden religion E) the Toltec culture was unknown to the Aztecs

    13. And the answer is C) as the givers of

    14. The Toltec empire lasted until about what date? A) 1000 B) 1150 C) 1236 D) 1434 E) 1521

    15. And the answer is B) 1150

    16. After the sack of Tula, the center of population and political power in Mexico shifted to: A) Yucatan. B) the valley of Mexico and the shores of a chain of lakes in that basin. C) Teotihuacn. D) Chimor. E) the southern Pacific coast.

    17. And the answer is B) the valley of Mexico and the shores of a chain of lakes in that basin.

    18. The people who succeeded the Toltecs as the rulers of central Mexico were the: A) Olmecs. B) Maya. C) Incas. D) Aztecs. E) Quechua.

    19. And the answer is D) Aztecs.

    20. Around what year did the Aztecs migrate to the central valley of Mexico? A) 1000 B) 1150 C) 1325 D) 1434 E) 932

    21. And the answer is C) 1325

    22. In the period shortly after the arrival of the Aztecs in the valley of Mexico, what was the nature of the political organization of the region? A) imperial B) regional kingdoms C) city-states D) hunting and gathering groups E) a large confederation

    23. And the answer is C) city-states

    24. Which of the following was NOT one of the cities challenging for dominance at the time of the Aztec arrival in the valley of Mexico? A) Teotihuacn B) Azcapotzalco C) Culhuacan D) Texcoco E) Tlacopan

    25. And the answer is A) Teotihuacn

    26. What city did the Aztecs establish ca. 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco? A) Teotihuacn B) Culhuacan C) Texcoco D) Tenochtitln E) Chinampa

    27. And the answer is D) Tenochtitln

    28. In what year did Tenochtitln emerge as the dominant force in the central plateau that it controlled along with Texcoco and Tlacopan? A) 1100 B) 1234 C) 1325 D) 1434 E) 1400

    29. And the answer is D) 1434

    30. Which of the following did NOT occur as a result of the Aztec rise to power? A) the increasing dominance of the nobility B) the emergence of a ruler with supreme powers C) the abandonment of human sacrifice D) the subsequent expansion of power and the boundaries of Aztec control E) a highly urbanized society

    31. And the answer is C) the abandonment of human sacrifice

    32. What was the impact of expansion and conquest on the Aztec social system? A) From a loose association of clans, Aztec society became a stratified society. B) Conquest opened up Aztec society to incursions by the indigenous peoples who began to form a trained bureaucracy. C) Aztec society was transformed in the sense that the Mexica adopted the social patterns of the Maya. D) Despite the stress of warfare and invasion, the Aztec society remained remarkably unchanged by the process. E) Aztec social institutions became more inclusive.

    33. And the answer is A) From a loose association of clans, Aztec society became a stratified society.

    34. The Aztec prime minister responsible for the expansion of human sacrifice and the rewriting of previous histories was: A) Ahuitzotl. B) Moctezuma II. C) Dacaelel. D) Quetzalcoatl. E) Xipe Totec.

    35. And the answer is C) Dacaelel

    36. Which of the following statements concerning Aztec religion is most accurate? A) Shortly after establishing their empire, the Aztecs abandoned all gods other than their patron, Huitzilopochtli. B) Aztec deities were normally associated only with male forms. C) Aztec deities were numerous and had different forms or manifestations somewhat like the avatars of the Hindu deities. D) There was little or no animism in the religious world of the Aztecs. E) Tonatiuh and Tezcatlipoca became the paramount gods.

    37. And the answer is C) Aztec deities were numerous and had different forms or manifestations somewhat like the avatars of the Hindu deities.

    38. Which of the following was NOT one of the major themes or cults of Aztec religion? A) gods of fertility B) creator deities C) gods of warfare and sacrifice D) deities devoted to contemplation and salvation E) the agricultural cycle

    39. And the answer is D) deities devoted to contemplation and salvation

    40. The central figure of the cult of human sacrifice and the most sacred deity of the Aztecs was: A) Quetzalcoatl. B) Tlaloc. C) Tonatiuh. D) Huitzilopochtli E) Chaco

    41. And the answer is D) Huitzilopochtli

    42. What was the Aztec view of history? A) They believed in a linear view of history dedicated to the premise of Aztec superiority for eternity. B) Like other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs believed in a cyclical pattern of repetitive destructions of the world. C) Unlike other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs rejected the cyclical view of history for a more modern historical view based on the history of their empire. D) Because they lacked a calendar system, the Aztecs had no formal historical viewpoint. E) They believed in a linear history ending with their total destruction.

    43. And the answer is B) Like other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs believed in a cyclical pattern of repetitive destructions of the world.

    44. Which of the following statements concerning the Aztec capital of Tenochtitln is NOT accurate? A) It was built on an island in the middle of a lake. B) By 1519 it probably had a population of about 150,000. C) Despite the existence of thousands of houses and other varieties of domestic architecture, unlike other Mesoamerican cities it lacked a temple complex. D) The city was divided into more than 60 wards controlled by kinship groups. E) It was larger than Paris or Seville.

    45. And the answer is C) Despite the existence of thousands of houses and other varieties of domestic architecture, unlike other Mesoamerican cities it lacked a temple complex.

    46. The Aztec innovation in intensive agriculture in the aquatic environments of the lakes of central Mexico was the development of: A) chinampas. B) pipiltin. C) quipus. D) calpulli. E) Pochteca.

    47. And the answer is A) chinampas.

    48. What was the nature of the Aztec economy? A) The Aztecs failed to develop a merchant class, so all distribution of goods was carried out by the state. B) The Aztecs developed a free market economy in which all trade was in the hands of specialized merchants. C) The Aztec state redistributed many goods received as tribute, but there was a specialized merchant class that also handled long-distance trade in rare commodities. D) There was little trade within Aztec society, as almost all communities were self-sufficient. E) The Aztec traded the entire length of the inhabited Pacific coast.

    49. And the answer is C) The Aztec state redistributed many goods received as tribute, but there was a specialized merchant class that also handled long-distance trade in rare commodities.

    50. One of the most permanent features of Aztec society was its organization into clans or: A) chinampas. B) pipiltin. C) quipus. D) calpulli. E) pok-ta-pok.

    51. And the answer is D) calpulli.

    52. ) Which of the following was NOT a function of the Aztec kinship groups? A) assignment of people to cult groups B) distributing land to household heads C) organizing labor units for state service D) organizing military units for warfare E) maintaining temples and schools

    53. And the answer is A) assignment of people to cult groups

    54. Closely identified with the cult of sacrifice and the military, the Aztec social hierarchy developed a nobility referred to as the: A) chinampas. B) pipiltin. C) quipus. D) calpulli. E) pochteca.

    55. And the answer is B) pipiltin

    56. Which of the following is NOT true of the Aztec view of marriage and the family? A) virginity at marriage was highly regarded for young women B) polygamy was common throughout society C) marriages were often arranged between lineages D) young girls were often trained by the older women of the calpulli E) mayeques rarely married into noble families

    57. And the answer is B) polygamy was common throughout society

    58. While the position of Aztec women in many ways paralleled that of women in other civilizations at a similar stage of development, what was the significant difference between the life of women in Mesoamerica and in the Mediterranean world? A) Women in Mesoamerica participated fully in the military. B) There was no polygamy practiced in Mesoamerica. C) Aztec women were unable to inherit or to pass property on to heirs. D) The limited technology of Mesoamerica confined women to many more hours grinding grain for food. E) Peasant women were more highly educated in Mesoamerica.

    59. And the answer is D) The limited technology of Mesoamerica confined women to many more hours grinding grain for food.

    60. What was the nature of the Aztec administration of subject territories? A) The Aztecs placed members of the Aztec nobility as rulers over subject peoples. B) All territories conquered by the Aztecs became part of a singular administration run by a trained bureaucracy located in Tenochtitlnmuch like the Byzantine Empire. C) Conquered territories were often left relatively unchanged under their old rulers as long as they recognized Aztec supremacy and paid tribute. D) The Aztecs established a military administration with subject territories controlled by regional generals. E) Aztecs rarely collected tribute from subject territories.

    61. And the answer is C) Conquered territories were often left relatively unchanged under their old rulers as long as they recognized Aztec supremacy and paid tribute.

    62. The image of the Inca empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need is referred to as A) Inca despotism. B) Indian utilitarianism. C) Inca socialism. D) utopian positivism. E) Mesoamerican capitalism.

    63. And the answer is C) Inca socialism.

    64. Which of the following views of the Aztec practice of human sacrifice can be associated with Marvin Harriss interpretation of the cannibal kingdom? A) The incidence of human sacrifice was grossly exaggerated by the Spanish for political purposes. B) It was an essentially religious act central to their belief that humans must sacrifice that which was most precious to them in order to receive the sun, rain, and other blessings. C) It was the intentional manipulation of a traditional practice to terrorize their neighbors and to keep the lower classes subordinate. D) It was a response to the lack of available protein in the form of large mammals. E) It was immoral and unnecessary.

    65. And the answer is D) It was a response to the lack of available protein in the form of large mammals.

    66. What was the primary difference in the political situation between the Mesoamerican and Andean zones following the breakup of the classical states? A) In Mesoamerica there was no real political decline as new peoples simply took over the institutions of their predecessors. B) In the Andean zones a number of relatively large states continued to be important, rather than the breakdown of power that was typical of Mesoamerica. C) The Andean political experience lacked the militaristic overtones that accompanied the breakdown of power in Mesoamerica. D) The transition of power that took place in the Andean zone was accomplished by invasion from outside the region. E) The Andean region was more compact and therefore quickly reunited.

    67. And the answer is B) In the Andean zones a number of relatively large states continued to be important, rather than the breakdown of power that was typical of Mesoamerica.

    68. The most powerful of the Andean states between 900 and 1465 following the decline of Tihuanaco and Huari was: A) Chimor. B) Titicaca. C) Topac Yupanqui. D) Chichen Itza. E) Chavin.

    69. And the answer is A) Chimor.

    70. The capital of the Inca empire was: A) Cuzco. B) Chan Chan. C) Tihuanaco. D) Chichen Itza. E) Cajamarca.

    71. And the answer is A) Cuzco.

    72. The Inca ruler associated with the first creation of the Inca empire in 1438 was: A) Topac Yupanqui. B) Ahuitzotl. C) Pachacuti. D) Moctezuma II. E) Viracocha.

    73. And the answer is C) Pachacuti.

    74. What do the authors suggest was the principal reason for Inca conquest and expansion? A) their need for human sacrificial victims B) the practice of split inheritance C) the absence of irrigation systems within the Inca empire D) the existence of long-distance trade merchants within the imperial administration E) the cult of the sun

    75. And the answer is B) the practice of split inheritance

    76. What was the Inca practice of split inheritance? A) On the death of the previous ruler, the throne passed to two descendants from the rulers family. B) On the death of the previous ruler, the familys wealth was equally divided between all male heirs. C) On the death of the previous ruler, the inheritance passed through the family of the senior wife to her oldest brother. D) All political power and titles went to the rulers successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead Incas mummy. E) All power and wealth was inherited by the eldest son.

    77. And the answer is D) All political power and titles went to the rulers successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead Incas mummy.

    78. ) The religious practice most closely associated with the state and the person of the Inca in Andean civilization was the cult of: A) human sacrifice. B) the rain god. C) the sun. D) Quetzalcoatl. E) Twantinsuyu.

    79. And the answer is C) the sun.

    80. Which of the following was utilized in the Inca empire, but NOT by the Aztecs? A) a semi-divine emperor B) extensive use of colonization C) use of local rulers in exchange for recognition of sovereignty D) identification of the nobility with the administrative and military functions of the state E) elaborate road systems

    81. And the answer is B) extensive use of colonization

    82. Which of the following existed in the Aztec empire, but NOT in the Inca empire? A) a tribute system B) redistribution of tribute by the state C) extraction of labor for use on temple projects D) an extensive merchant class E) recognition of local groups and leaders.

    83. And the answer is D) an extensive merchant class

    84. What was the Andean principle of inheritance? A) matrilineal, inheritance passing in the female line B) patrilineal, inheritance passing in the male line C) parallel descent, or inheritance passing in both the male and female lines D) everything passing to the monarch E) extended family split inheritances evenly

    85. And the answer is C) parallel descent, or inheritance passing in both the male and female lines

    86. Tambos were: A) labor turns exacted by the Inca authorities. B) knotted strings used for record keeping. C) local rulers. D) way stations along roads in the Inca empire. E) mountain passes.

    87. And the answer is D) way stations along roads in the Inca empire.

    88. The Inca nobility were: A) drawn from 10 royal ayllus and the city of Cuzco. B) drawn from the noble ayllus of the conquered population. C) not distinguished from the commoners by appearance or dress. D) often commoners who distinguished themselves in battle. E) equal in status to the yanas.

    89. And the answer is A) drawn from 10 royal ayllus and the city of Cuzco.

    90. Which of the following represents a cultural difference between the Incas and Aztecs? A) monumental architecture B) no practical use of the wheel C) lack of a writing system D) beautiful pottery and cloth E) relative isolation

    91. And the answer is C) lack of a writing system

    92. In terms of the integration of a centralized empire, how did the Incas and Aztecs compare? A) The Aztecs and Incas both made little attempt to integrate conquered territories and permitted self-rule in return for loyalty and tribute. B) The Aztecs were more advanced than the Incas in consolidating their government into an integrated unit. C) The Incas attempted to create an over-arching political state and made conscious attempts to integrate their empire as a unit, while the Aztecs did less in this regard. D) Both the Incas and the Aztecs created fully integrated empires complete with central bureaucracies and military administrative units that controlled all conquered regions. E) To create the empire both allowed little variation from region to region

    93. And the answer is C) The Incas attempted to create an over-arching political state and made conscious attempts to integrate their empire as a unit, while the Aztecs did less in this regard.

    94. Which of the following represents a significant difference between the Andean and Mesoamerican civilizations? A) climate and geography B) kin-based social groups C) sedentary agricultural systems D) the existence of a nobility E) tribute systems

    95. And the answer is A) climate and geography

    96. ) Which of the following statements about the population of the Americas is most true? A) The population of the Americas is easy to calculate. B) North America was more densely populated than Mesoamerica or the Andes. C) The population of the Americas was nearly the same as that of contemporary Europe (not including Russia). D) The early twentieth-century estimate of 8.4 million still seems the most accurate. E) most estimates are approximately the same

    97. And the answer is C) The population of the Americas was nearly the same as that of contemporary Europe (not including Russia).

    98. By 1800, agriculture was: A) largely diffused throughout the Americas, although not always in sedentary agricultural communities. B) virtually unknown outside of the Andean and Mesoamerican civilization zones. C) practiced in sedentary communities throughout the Americas. D) practiced in sedentary communities and by nomadic pastoralists throughout the Americas. E) practiced sparingly outside Mesoamerica.

    99. And the answer is A) largely diffused throughout the Americas, although not always in sedentary agricultural communities.

    100. Which of the following does NOT represent a characteristic of most Indian societies other than the Andean and Mesoamerican civilizations? A) strongly kin-based societies B) wealth as the basis of social ranking C) communal action and ownership of resources D) important social and political roles for women E) highly urbanized populations

    101. And the answer is B) wealth as the basis of social ranking

    102. The period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-Han era is referred to as the: A) Warring States era. B) Era of Division. C) Jurchen invasion era. D) Mongol Conquest. E) Time of Troubles

    103. And the answer is B) Era of Division.

    104. Which of the following statements concerning the situation at the end of the Qin-Han period is most accurate? A) Aristocratic families rapidly lost ground to the growing influence of the scholar-gentry. B) Non-Chinese nomads ruled much of China and a foreign religion, Buddhism, eclipsed Confucian teachings. C) The central authority of the imperial government was rapidly reestablished under the Chou dynasty. D) Despite the disappearance of imperial unity, the centralized bureaucracy continued to function as before in the capital of Beijing. E) Patterns of life established during the Qin-Han era faded rapidly.

    105. And the answer is B) Non-Chinese nomads ruled much of China and a foreign religion, Buddhism, eclipsed Confucian teachings.

    106. The dynasty that ended the period of political chaos after the fall of the Qin-Han was the: A) Tang. B) Chou. C) Song. D) Sui. E) Qing.

    107. And the answer is D) Sui.

    108. Which of the following statements concerning the period after the fall of the Han is NOT true? A) Despite the political chaos, the Great Wall continued to serve as a barrier to the penetration of nomadic peoples. B) Trade and city life declined as the central government dissipated. C) With mainly Buddhist exceptions, thought degenerated into the quest for magical cures. D) Nomadic peoples raided and conquered across the north China plain. E) Chinese technology stagnated during this time.

    109. And the answer is A) Despite the political chaos, the Great Wall continued to serve as a barrier to the penetration of nomadic peoples.

    110. What made possible the rapid revival of empire under the Tang? A) the abandonment of Confucianism in favor of the more widely practiced Buddhism B) the brevity of the period of political dislocation C) the willingness of the Tang to abandon traditional approaches to government D) the preservation in the many kingdoms of the Confucian traditions that had been central to Chinese civilization E) massive grain imports

    111. And the answer is D) the preservation in the many kingdoms of the Confucian traditions that had been central to Chinese civilization

    112. The man responsible for the creation of the Sui dynasty was: A) Xuanzong. B) Yang Guifei. C) Wendi. D) Li Yuan. E) Li Bo.

    113. And the answer is C) Wendi.

    114. What made the reunification of China under the first Sui emperor possible? A) the support of the nomadic warrior elite B) the support of the ethnic Chinese aristocracy C) the support of the Buddhist monasteries D) the support of the Confucian scholar-gentry E) the threat of barbarian invasion

    115. And the answer is A) the support of the nomadic warrior elite

    116. What was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first Sui emperor? A) the reconstruction of the Confucian scholar-gentry B) persecution of the Buddhists C) the creation of granaries to relieve the threat of famine D) the construction of the Grand Canal E) the destruction of the Great Wall

    117. And the answer is C) the creation of granaries to relieve the threat of famine

    118. Unlike his father, the second Sui emperor favored: A) the Confucian scholar-gentry. B) the great Chinese aristocratic families. C) the Buddhists. D) nomadic elements in northern China. E) the Chinese peasants.

    119. And the answer is A) the Confucian scholar-gentry.

    120. What led to the downfall of the Sui dynasty? A) nomadic invasions B) excessive expenses associated with grandiose building projects and military campaigns C) widespread Buddhist rebellion D) the dissatisfaction of the Confucian scholar-gentry E) a deranged emperor

    121. And the answer is B) excessive expenses associated with grandiose building projects and military campaigns

    122. Who was the founder of the Tang dynasty? A) Yangdi B) Li Bo C) Li Yuan D) Zhao Kuangyin E) Niu Su Answer: C

    123. And the answer is C) Li Yuan

    124. ) Which of the following statements concerning the extent of the Tang empire is most accurate? A) The Tang extended the empire in all directions except westward, where the Turks remained entirely independent of the Chinese emperor. B) The Tang empire was unable to recover the territorial extent of the Han, but did recover northern areas from the nomads. C) The Tang empire incorporated India and southeast Asia as well as the areas north of the Yellow River plain. D) The Tang built an empire that was far larger than that of the early Han, an empire whose boundaries in many directions extended beyond the borders of modern China. E) The Tang empire stopped expanding and was divided into three parts.

    125. And the answer is D) The Tang built an empire that was far larger than that of the early Han, an empire whose boundaries in many directions extended beyond the borders of modern China.

    126. What was the attitude of the Tang emperors toward the Confucian scholar-gentry? A) The Tang continued to support and patronize the growth of Buddhism in China at the expense of the Confucian scholar-gentry. B) The Tang supported the resuscitation of the Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of the aristocracy. C) The Tang feared the development of the scholar-gentry and continued to support the nomadic aristocracy of China. D) Confucianism continued to wane during the Tang dynasty and was only resuscitated under the Song. E) The scholar-gentry declined while the middle class rose.

    127. And the answer is B) The Tang supported the resuscitation of the Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of the aristocracy.

    128. What ministry of the central imperial government was responsible for the administration of the examination system? A) Rites B) Public Works C) Justice D) War E) Education

    129. And the answer is A) Rites

    130. The title of jinshi was reserved for those who: A) were members of the B) served in the Chinese military. C) were members of the imperial family. D) passed the most difficult exams on all of Chinese literature. E) traced their ancestry back to the Han.

    131. And the answer is D) passed the most difficult exams on all of Chinese literature.

    132. Which of the following statements concerning entry into the Chinese bureaucracy is most accurate? A) Although a higher percentage of candidates received office through the examination system than during the Han dynasty, birth continued to be important in securing high office. B) Under the Tang family connections ceased to be of significance, as all candidates received office based on their score in the examination system. C) Although the examination system continued to be monitored, almost all official received positions as a result of family connections. D) The examination system was eliminated during the Tang dynasty, and only members of the imperial family served in the bureaucracy. E) Only candidates in law were judged solely on their exam scores.

    133. And the answer is A) Although a higher percentage of candidates received office through the examination system than during the Han dynasty, birth continued to be important in securing high office.

    134. Members of the elite class of China were more attracted to what variant of Buddhism? A) Legalist B) Pure Land C) Chan D) Daoist E) Xuanzong Answer: C

    135. And the answer is C) Chan

    136. Which of the following descriptions of Pure Land Buddhism is NOT accurate? A) It was a strain of Mahayana Buddhism. B) It stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty. C) It appealed to members of the mass of Chinese commoners. D) It was a salvationist variant of Buddhism. E) It offered a refuge from war and turmoil.

    137. And the answer is B) It stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty.

    138. What Tang ruler actually attempted to have Buddhism recognized as a state religion? A) Yangdi B) Wendi C) Gaozu D) Empress Wu E) Empress Wei

    139. And the answer is D) Empress Wu

    140. What proved to be the most damaging attack on Buddhisms popularity with the people during the early Tang dynasty? A) the Buddhists insistence on rebellion against the emperor B) the Confucians successful campaign to convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic establishment represented an economic threat C) the aristocracys concern that the growing Buddhist monastic establishment was monopolizing land that otherwise would belong to them D) the entry of nomadic invaders who were Islamic during the ninth century E) the challenge from Daoism

    141. And the answer is B) the Confucians successful campaign to convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic establishment represented an economic threat

    142. In what decade did open persecution of Buddhism within the Chinese empire begin? A) 720s B) 790s C) 840s D) 910s E) 850s

    143. And the answer is C) 840s

    144. What was the result of the imperial attempt to suppress Buddhism within the Chinese empire? A) Despite official attempts to suppress Buddhism, monastic orders continued to exert political influence and control landed wealth as they did in the first decades of Tang rule. B) Buddhism survived the brief imperial persecution and was restored as the primary religion of the state during the Song dynasty. C) Buddhism survived the repression, but in a reduced state without the political influence of the early Tang years. D) Buddhism was eradicated in China by the end of the Tang era and replaced by the traditional Daoist and Confucian beliefs. E) Buddhism became a sect of minor importance

    145. And the answer is C) Buddhism survived the repression, but in a reduced state without the political influence of the early Tang years.

    146. What was the impact on Confucianism of the Tang repression of the Buddhists? A) Confucianism emerged as the central ideology of Chinese civilization until the twentieth century. B) Confucianism emerged in a strengthened condition, but still remained behind Buddhism in the sense of providing a basis for the intellectual rationale of Chinese civilization. C) Because Confucian scholar-gentry were associated with the persecution, Confucianism failed to generate much popular support outside the imperial government. D) Confucianism, like Buddhism, declined in popularity, and its place was taken by Daoism. E) Confucianism was blended with Buddhism to form a new philosophy.

    147. And the answer is A) Confucianism emerged as the central ideology of Chinese civilization until the twentieth century.

    148. Which of the following was NOT a woman who gained influence and power during the later years of the Tang dynasty? A) Wu B) Wei C) Yang Guifei D) Xuanzong E) Gaozu

    149. And the answer is D) Xuanzong

    150. Which of the following was NOT a problem during the last years of the Tang dynasty? A) the revolt of An Lushan B) the entry of nomads into large areas of the northern China plain C) the Huang-chao rebellion D) a Buddhist rebellion in southern China E) independent rulers collected their own taxes

    151. And the answer is D) a Buddhist rebellion in southern China

    152. Who was the founder of the Song dynasty? A) Zhao Kuangyin B) Xuanzong C) Li Bo, Duke of Song D) Xi-Xia E) Taizu

    153. And the answer is A) Zhao Kuangyin

    154. The first Song emperor restored the unity of China EXCEPT for what northern dynasty? A) Jurchen B) Silla C) Liao D) Hangzhou E) Jin

    155. And the answer is C) Liao

    156. How did the Song empire compare to the Tang? A) The Song empire was greater in territorial extent than the Tang empire. B) The Song empire and the Tang empire were virtually identical in territorial extent. C) The Song empire was smaller in territorial extent than the Tang empire. D) Although approximately the same size, the Song empire extended farther north than the Tang. E) The Song was larger than the Tang and Han.

    157. And the answer is C) The Song empire was smaller in territorial extent than the Tang empire.

    158. What accounts for the relative weakness of the Song empire? A) It never succeeded in achieving the degree of centralization that had typified the Tang empire. B) The scholar-gentry quickly lost influence under the Song, and the bureaucracy ceased to function effectively. C) Lack of agricultural productivity produced a general failure of the Chinese economy during the Song dynasty. D) The military was subordinated to the civilian administrators of the scholar-gentry, leaving the dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the frontier. E) The military was weakened by the struggle with the Buddhists.

    159. And the answer is D) The military was subordinated to the civilian administrators of the scholar-gentry, leaving the dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the frontier.

    160. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the position of the scholar gentry under the Song dynasty? A) The Confucian scholar-gentry continued to exist, but the examination system weakened noticeably causing the imperial bureaucracy to depend more and more on the aristocracy. B) The ascendancy of the scholar-gentry over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals was fully secured in the Song era. C) The Song emperors came to rely increasingly on the military as defense of the borders placed less emphasis on the role of intellectual ideology and more on warfare. D) The Song continued to rely on the Confucian scholar-gentry, but more rigorous examination systems resulted in fewer men entering the civil service as a result of education. E) The scholar-gentry attempted to revive warlordism.

    161. And the answer is B) The ascendancy of the scholar-gentry over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals was fully secured in the Song era.

    162. Who was the most prominent of the Neo-Confucians during the Song era? A) Li Bo B) Yang Guifei C) Hangzhou D) Zhu Xi E) Zhao

    163. And the answer is D) Zhu Xi

    164. Which of the following was NOT an eventual impact of the development of Neo-Confucian schools of thought? A) hostility to foreign philosophical systems like Buddhism B) the stifling of innovation and critical thinking in favor of traditionalism C) destruction of the mandarins D) reinforcement of class, age, and gender distinctions E) historical experiences held to be the most practical guide to life

    165. And the answer is C) destruction of the mandarins

    166. Wang Anshi, a prime minister in the 1070s and 1080s attempted to reform Song government on the basis of what Confucian school of thought? A) Daoism B) Shiism C) Constructionism D) Legalism E) Zhao

    167. And the answer is D) Legalism

    168. Which of the following was NOT one of the reforms introduced by Wang Anshin in the face of conservative opposition? A) the introduction of government-assisted irrigation projects to encourage agricultural expansion B) taxation of the landlord and scholarly classes C) the establishment of well-trained mercenary forces D) the end of tribute payments to nomadic dynasties on the northern border E) reorganization of university education.

    169. And the answer is D) the end of tribute payments to nomadic dynasties on the northern border

    170. What caused the flight of the Song dynasty from their capital in northern China? A) the invasions of the Jurchens who had formed the Qin kingdom B) the Huang-chao rebellion C) a rebellion led by a nomadic general, An Lushan D) extensive flooding in the Yellow River basin E) attempted takeover by the Khitans Answer: A

    171. And the answer is A) the invasions of the Jurchens who had formed the Qin kingdom

    172. Why was the construction of the Grand Canal necessary? A) Major river systems in China ran from north to south, and the canal was necessary to connect the coastal regions with the western frontier. B) Chinese population was increasingly concentrated along the northern plains along the Yangze River. C) The Yangze River valley was becoming the major food-producing region of China by the late Tang era. D) The canal connected the Tang capitals of southern ChinaChangan and Loyang with the newly acquired regions in the north. E) Peasants moving from the countryside to the urban areas.

    173. And the answer is C) The Yangze River valley was becoming the major food-producing region of China by the late Tang era.

    174. Which of the following was NOT an economic development during the period of commercial expansion during the Tang and Song dynasties? A) trade increasingly carried by Chinese ships and sailors B) enlarged market quarters found in all cities and major towns C) growing sophistication in commercial organization and forms of credit D) military domination of the seas E) a series of technological breakthroughs

    175. And the answer is D) military domination of the seas

    176. Which of the following statements concerning urbanization in China during the Tang-Song era is most accurate? A) Chinese urbanization was pronounced in northern China, but lagged in southern China. B) The imperial capitals were enormous, but there were few other Chinese cities of size. C) The degree of urbanization reached during the Han dynasty was never achieved during the Tang-Song era, although some recovery of cities accompanied the commercial revival. D) Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the population living in cities than that found in any other contemporary civilization. E) Cities were depopulated as people moved back into the countryside.

    177. And the answer is D) Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the population living in cities than that found in any other contemporary civilization

    178. What was the capital of the southern Song dynasty? A) Hangzhou B) Changan C) Loyan D) Beijing E) Huining

    179. And the answer is A) Hangzhou

    180. Which of the following was NOT a result of the agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang emperors? A) numbers of free peasantry increased B) the scholar-gentry were removed as landlords C) fortunes of the old aristocratic families declined D) lands were distributed more equitably to the free peasant households of the empire E) the gentry side of the scholar-gentry came to dominate the bureaucracy

    181. And the answer is B) the scholar-gentry were removed as landlords

    182. Which of the following statements about Chinese landscape painting is most accurate? A) Landscape painting was virtually unknown until after the Mongol invasions. B) As in the West, landscape painting was the special skill of the military elite. C) Members of the ruling political elite in China produced many of the paintings in the Song era. D) Song subsidies to foreign painters resulted in the production of magnificent landscapes. E) Paintings never conveyed moral messages or used symbolism.

    183. And the answer is C) Members of the ruling political elite in China produced many of the paintings in the Song era.

    184. In what way did footbinding serve to diminish the independence of Chinese women by the end of the Song era? A) Because footbinding could only be afforded by the elite, poorer women were assigned to a lower social status. B) Footbinding sufficiently crippled women to effectively confine their mobility to their household. C) As footbinding was required in order to practice certain professions, Chinese women found that occupational alternatives were diminished. D) Footbinding, although considered socially attractive, was condemned by Neo-Confucians who used the practice as a means of relegating Chinese women to subordinate roles. E) Upper-class women considered it high status and hoarded money to pay for it.

    185. And the answer is B) Footbinding sufficiently crippled women to effectively confine their mobility to their household.

    186. Which of the following was NOT a technological innovation of the Tang-Song era? A) gunpowder B) abacus C) paper D) complex bridges E) coal used for fuel Answer: C

    187. And the answer is C) paper

    188. Which of the following intellectual schools was responsible for the production of most literary and artistic works during the Tang-Song era? A) Confucian B) Daoist C) Pure Land Buddhist D) Chan Buddhist E) Legalist

    189. And the answer is A) Confucian

    190. What group was responsible for the fall of the southern Song dynasty in 1279? A) Jurchens B) Tanguts C) Liao D) Mongols E) Xi-Xia

    191. And the answer is D) Mongols

    192. What was the primary difference between marriages of the upper and lower classes in Tang-Song China? A) In the upper classes, males frequently married females of a younger generation. B) Among members of the lower classes marriages tended to be consummated at an earlier age than among members of the elite. C) Members of the elite often married before the age of puberty. D) Households of the .lower classes tended not to be patriarchal. E) Upper class men rarely married footbound women.

    193. And the answer is B) Among members of the lower classes marriages tended to be consummated at an earlier age than among members of the elite.

    194. Which of the following statements concerning the status of women in the Tang-Song era is most accurate? A) Tang-Song law recognized no womens rights. B) The condition of women in general improved during the Tang-Song era. C) The assertion of male dominance within the family and beyond was especially pronounced in the thinking of the Neo-Confucian philosophers. D) The spread of Buddhism provided women with greater opportunities and career alternatives within the monastic movement. E) Women had more rights than ever before.

    195. And the answer is C) The assertion of male dominance within the family and beyond was especially pronounced in the thinking of the Neo-Confucian philosophers.

    196. What artisan was responsible for the development of movable type? A) Li Bo B) Bi Sheng C) Gaozu D) Zhu Xi E) An Lushan Answer: B

    197. And the answer is B) Bi Sheng

    198. The outstanding poet of the Tang era was A) Li Bo. B) Bi Sheng. C) Gaozu. D) Zhu Xi. E) Zhao Kuangyin

    199. And the answer is A) Li Bo

    200. During the Song dynasty the interest of Confucian intellectuals in nature was most apparent in their production of: A) riddles. B) devotional objects. C) religious homilies. D) landscape paintings. E) sculptures of ideal athletic figures.

    201. And the answer is D) landscape paintings.

    202. What regions of Asia were most drawn to Chinese cultural and political models? A) the agrarian societies on the east and south B) the nomadic societies on the north C) Indianized peoples of Southeast Asia D) the island societies of the Pacific rim E) western Islamic provinces

    203. And the answer is A) the agrarian societies on the east and south

    204. Which of the following was NOT one of the Asian satellites of Chinese civilization? A) Korea B) Vietnam C) Thailand D) Japan E) Slia

    205. And the answer is C) Thailand

    206. When did Japan begin to borrow heavily from Chinese culture? A) third century B.C.E. B) first century B.C.E. C) second and third centuries C.E. D) fifth and sixth centuries C.E. E) sixth and seventh centuries C.E.

    207. And the answer is D) fifth and sixth centuries C.E.

    208. What is the name of the nature spirits of Japan? A) hapu B) kami C) hara-kiri D) genji E) Heian

    209. And the answer is B) kami

    210. What religion played a key role in the transmission of Chinese civilization to Japan? A) Buddhism B) Daoism C) Islam D) Christianity E) Hinduism

    211. And the answer is A) Buddhism

    212. In which of the following periods was Chinese cultural influence NOT significant? A) Taika B) Nara C) Heian D) Tokugawa E) Warlord

    213. And the answer is D) Tokugawa

    214. What were the reforms enacted in 646 that intended to thoroughly incorporate Chinese culture and political structure into Japanese society? A) Onin B) Gempei C) Taika D) Yoritomo E) Heian

    215. And the answer is C) Taika

    216. What was the central purpose of the reforms of 646 in Japan? A) to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor B) to destroy the Confucian scholar-gentry in favor of a military aristocracy C) to increase the power of the Buddhist monastic structure D) the destruction of the traditional peasant-conscript army E) to decentralize the imperial government

    217. And the answer is A) to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor

    218. What group so threatened the security of the Japanese imperial court in the eighth century that the imperial family moved to Heian? A) the aristocracy B) Buddhist monks C) the peasantry D) nomadic invaders from Manchuria E) the scholar-gentry

    219. And the answer is B) Buddhist monks

    220. What was the immediate impact of the imperial move to Heian? A) Buddhism ceased to playa major role in Japanese society. B) The scholar-gentry was able to assert itself through the states acceptance of a formal examination system modeled on the Chinese bureaucracy. C) The aristocracy was restored to counterbalance the power of the Buddhist monasteries and took over most of the positions in the central government. D) Shintoism was formally suppressed following the marriage of the Empress Koken to a former monk. E) the aristocrats gave up positions in the central government.

    221. And the answer is C) The aristocracy was restored to counterbalance the power of the Buddhist monasteries and took over most of the positions in the central government.

    222. What was the military organization of the Heian government in Japan? A) The emperor formalized the creation of a peasant-conscript army on the model of the Chinese. B) The emperor accepted the introduction of Chinese troops as the basis for the Japanese army. C) Formal military organization was abandoned because of the security the emperor perceived following the defeat of a Chinese navy. D) Local members of the aristocracy were ordered to organize militia forces that eventually played a critical role eroding the control of the imperial government. E) Buddhist monasteries depended on the Bushi for protection.

    223. And the answer is D) Local members of the aristocracy were ordered to organize militia forces that eventually played a critical role eroding the control of the imperial government

    224. Life in the imperial court at Heian was described in what Japanese novel? A) Ashikage Analects B) Tale of Genji C) Mirror of Lady Murasaki D) Romance of the Rose E) Essential of Salvation

    225. And the answer is B) Tale of Genji

    226. What appears to have been the primary concerns at the imperial Japanese court at Heian? A) military exercise B) science and technology C) social conventions and original verse D) commerce E) interpreting laws

    227. And the answer is C) social conventions and original verse

    228. By the middle of the ninth century, what aristocratic family exerted exceptional influence over imperial affairs at the Japanese court at Heian? A) Minamoto B) Fujiwara C) Taira D) Yoritomo E) Genshin

    229. And the answer is B) Fujiwara

    230. Warrior leaders in the tenth century in Japan who controlled provincial areas and ruled from small fortresses in the countryside were called: A) bushi. B) samurai. C) kata. D) seppuku. E) Gimpei.

    231. And the answer is A) bushi.

    232. Which of the following statements concerning the rise of a provincial military elite during the tenth century in Japan is NOT correct? A) Provincial elite families often arose from local landowners, estate managers, or local state officials. B) The provincial elite came to control land and labor locally and to deny these resources to the imperial court. C) The rise of the provincial elite corresponded to the recovery of the imperial government and its overthrow of the aristocracy of the court. D) Within their little kingdoms, warrior leaders administered law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenue. E) Peasant dependants supplied the elites with food and other necessities.

    233. And the answer is C) The rise of the provincial elite corresponded to the recovery of the imperial government and its overthrow of the aristocracy of the court.

    234. Mounted troops owing loyalty to the military elite were called: A) bushi. B) samurai. C) kata. D) Yoritomo. E) Bakufu.

    235. And the answer is B) samurai

    236. Which of the following statements concerning the relationship of the imperial court to the provincial military elite is most accurate? A) The provincial military elite was kept in check by the continued development of the imperial peasant-conscript army. B) The provincial military elite was rapidly subjected to the aristocratic armies of the imperial court. C) In the absence of an imperial military force, law and order broke down leading both the emperor and high officials to hire provincial lords and their military retainers. D) The emperor created an alliance with the Chinese that permitted him to crush the regional military lords. E) The imperial court worked with the military elite to suppress the peasants.

    237. And the answer is C) In the absence of an imperial military force, law and order broke down leading both the emperor and high officials to hire provincial lords and their military retainers.

    238. Which of the following statements concerning the nature of warfare among the bushi is most accurate? A) The bushi depended on infantry tactics, equipping the samurai initially with long spears. B) The introduction of gunpowder in the eleventh century allowed the bushi to rely on cannon and rockets as their primary means of assault. C) Battles depended on the Japanese phalanx of mounted samurai and massed assaults predicated on the willingness of the retainers to sacrifice themselves for their leaders. D) Battles hinged on man-to-man duels of great champions typical of the heroic stage of warfare. E) The bushi made possible the building of conscript armies.

    239. And the answer is D) Battles hinged on man-to-man duels of great champions typical of the heroic stage of warfare.

    240. What was the impact of the rise of the samurai on the peasantry in Japan? A) Japanese peasants were reduced to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked. B) The samurai were critical to the development of a free peasantry on which the warriors depended for supplies of food and arms. C) The creation of the samurai created a period of great social mobility in Japan during which people rapidly moved out of the peasantry and into the class of warriors. D) Although separated from the warriors by rigid class barriers, the peasantry achieved greater levels of personal freedom and economic prosperity. E) Peasants who were willing to be trained could become samurai.

    241. And the answer is A) Japanese peasants were reduced to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked.

    242. By the eleventh and twelfth centuries, what was the status of the Japanese court aristocracy? A) They continued to dominate the imperial government and to depend on their alliance with the Buddhist monasteries. B) Aristocratic families at the court depended on alliances with the provincial warrior elite in order to exercise any power. C) The resuscitation of the emperor led to the destruction of the court aristocracy and the suppression of the regional warrior elite. D) The court aristocracy succeeded by the eleventh century in setting aside the emperor in favor of regionalized government. E) the aristocracy increased in power due to the influence of the Taira and Minamoto families.

    243. And the answer is B) Aristocratic families at the court depended on alliances with the provincial warrior elite in order to exercise any power.

    244. Between 1180 and 1185 the struggle between the two major provincial familiesthe Taira and the Minamotowere decided in what wars? A) Onin B) Koguryo C) Gempei D) Murasaki E) Tang

    245. And the answer is C) Gempei

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