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World History AP Review

World History AP Review

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World History AP Review

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  1. World History AP Review 1750 to 1914

  2. Dahomey (1600-1900) The Dahomey (Fon) people are the product of a brotherly rivalry. In the early 1600s, Do-Aklin, centered his control on the central town of Abomey. They had a strong military (now with European weapons), centralized government and had mixed with local peoples. By the late 1600s, they were going after neighboring tribes for slaves to sell to the Europeans. To have direct contact with the Europeans, King Agaja (r. 1708-1732), using women soldiers, captured much of the south though it brought the Dahomey against the Yoruba kingdom. The Yoruba kingdom defeated the Dahomey but the Dahomey maintained unity until the 1900s, moving northward and capturing and sell slaves. Members of the Dahomey tribe in a photograph taken for a 1893 book

  3. Asante Empire (1607-1902) Also known as the Ashanti, these peoples rose to power during the slave trade. They were members of the Akan people (the majority of modern-day Ghana). The Oyoko clan were the most dominant of this empire. Their ability to expand was due to cooperation with Europeans and access to firearms. Osei Tutu, one of the empire’s more powerful leaders, created a position of unquestioned civil and religious leadership. His “golden stool” became a symbol of the Asante union. The Asante maintained power through control of the gold fields and a near endless supply of prisoners to be sold as slaves well into the 1800s. By 1896, it was defeated by the British and then, in 1901, it was made a apart of the British Gold Coast colony. Asante gold mask

  4. Industrial Revolution(1700s-1900s) The movement began in 1700s England as production of goods were done as a mass scale using machines first powered by water and later coal.  England was a natural choice due to their large work force, natural resources and navigable waterways.  The period is known for new machines  (mechanization) such as the flying shuttle and spinning jenny within the textile industry, advances in steam power and quicker ways of making steel called the Bessemer Process.  This led to greater transportation, not only on the water but by rail.  A movement of this importance would naturally have long-range consequences such as the lowering of prices and the subsequent increase in demand, higher standard of living, the emergence of a new middle class and a large working class, the shift of women from the fields into the home and rapid urbanization which led to the development of tenements and slums.  In response to the changes, governments passed laws to protect workers, unions formed to speak for workers and their concerns while philosophers argued at the social ramifications.  Adam Smith, in his book The Wealth of Nations, pushed for a laissez-faire approach to the economy while German Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels condemned capitalism and advocated a more socialistic approach.

  5. Nationalism (1700s-1800s) In a dictionary sense, it means an excessive pride in one's country or culture.  The various independent and unification movements during the 1700s and 1800s were based on this concept.  It was prevalent during the French revolution, the Zionist movement, the Indian National Congress, the unification movements of Germany and Italy and the independence of Latin American states.

  6. Frederick the Great The great Prussian leader was able to expand upon his predecessors with regards to the military and bureaucratic organization. He also provided greater religious freedom as well as economic power of the state. As an “enlightened despot,” he promoted Enlightenment ideas with better agricultural methods, pushed for greater economic equality and toned down the harsher punishments of the past. “Diplomacy without arms is like music without instruments.”

  7. battle of Plassey (1757) The growth of the British Raj played itself throughout India but one of the bigger conflicts of the struggle occurred in Plassey, in modern-day Bangladesh. In it, less than 3,000 British and Indian sepoys, under the command of famed British general Robert Clive, defeated an Indian army of some 50,000, under the leadership, as it were, of a teenage local ruler in Bengal named Sirajud-daula. Beyond the staggering defeat of so many at the hands of so few, Clive was well aware of the other army through bribery and spies. Additionally, the British were funded by Hindu bankers upset at unpaid Muslim debts. The defection of portions of the Indian army did not hurt Clive’s cause either.

  8. Pugachev Rebellion (1774-1775) One of the strongest uprisings against Czarist Russia, EmelianPugachev was a Cossack chief who claimed to be the real czar. His promises ranged from an end to serfdom to an end to taxation and military conscription. The forces of Catherine finally caught up with Pugachev and she personally saw to his torture and death. Catherine and the aristocracy worked together to ensure the end of the uprising but it was difficult.

  9. American Revolution (1775-1783) Britain's American colonies, in the mid-1700s, began to resist against parliamentary tax legislation and its violation of English rights.  The colonies created a continental congress to begin formulating those things required for a separation, including an army and military leadership.  On 4 July 1776, the colonies declared their independence.  The thinking that lay behind the declaration was firmly rooted in Enlightenment thinking such as inalienable rights and government based on the consent of the governed.  It was France that would provide the needed supplies and money for the Americans to win the war and Britain did surrender in 1781.  The subsequent democratic government based on the will of the people influenced many other revolutions and uprisings in the decades and centuries to come.  Washington and his men cross the Delaware to face Hessians on the other side.

  10. Tupac Amaru Born José Gabriel Condorcanqui, an educated and semi-wealthy man, Amaru became an indigenous (Inca) leader in Peru. Sympathizing with those suffering in Peru and in hopes of ameliorating their lives, he fought to do just that. However, the government refused to budge on Amaru’s demands. Afterwards, he took the name of his supposed ancestor and led a rebellion against the Peruvian government in 1780. He was captured and executed but not before being forced to watch the execution of his wife and eldest son. However, the rebellion continued, taking the capital of La Paz in 1781. Shortly afterwards, the uprising was put down. The rest of Amaru’s family was either executed or thrown in jail. Still, the government made many of the reforms that Amaru initially championed.

  11. Louis XVI of France He presided, along with his Austrian wife Marie Antoinette, over the devolution of the French monarchy at the hands of angry peasant mobs. In 1788, he attempted to raise money through tax reforms through a new parliament but the Enlightenment-influenced members set out to create a real parliament with voting powers and not the tool that the king hoped they would be. By 1789, the revolution was under way. While the king attempted to appease the peasants with limited reforms, it was not enough. While European monarchs and aristocrats (as well as church leaders) voiced their opposition to the revolution, the leaders of the movement grew more radical. In 1793, the radicals abolished the monarchy and Louis and his wife were decapitated at the guillotine. The executions ushered in the Reign of Terror.

  12. National Assembly (late 1700s) This was the creation of the Third Estate, who broke away from the Estates General, the legislative body during the monarchial period of French history.  The Third Estate was heavily influenced by Enlightenment thinking and the success and ideals of the American revolution.  Operating under the idea of "life, liberty and fraternity," they pushed Enlightenment ideas and adopted a new constitution in 1791 which created a constitutional monarchy.  However, the Assembly could not last and it could not control the excesses of the movement and could not fulfill all of their ideals.

  13. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789) Declared by the French National Assembly prior to the revolution, it would be the basis of the Constitution of 1791. It declared that all men were born free and equal with regards to rights. The major rights mentioned include liberty and private property. It also detailed freedoms with regards to religion and speech. It stood in direct opposition to the king (Louis XVI) particularly and the monarchial system in general.

  14. The French Revolution (La Révolution) It was a revolution that began in 1789 and led to the immediate trial and execution of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The rule of France passed to the radical Jacobins who initiated the “reign of terror.” The subsequent instability and government incompetence led to the rise of Napoléon Bonaparte. C'était une révolution qui a commencé en 1789 et a causé le procès immédiat et l'exécution du Roi Louis XVI et de Marie Antoinette. L’autorité de la France a passé aux Jacobins radicaux qui ont lancé le "règne de terreur.” L'instabilité qui a suivi et l'incompétence gouvernementale ont causé l'ascension de Napoléon Bonaparte.

  15. Napoléon Bonaparte He was a French general who led a coup d'état in 1799.  He crowned himself emperor by 1804 with a new constitution.  He initiated political and social reforms that created a certain level of stability.  His civil code of laws created universal male enfranchisement and pushed for religious toleration.  Militarily, he conquered much of Europe.  He made a huge mistake in invading Russia in 1812 and between the Russians and the horrible Russian winter, suffered a humiliating and total defeat.  The British would later exile him.  Jacques-Louis David’s famous painting, Napoléon at the Saint-Bernard Pass

  16. Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) Formally known as Saint Domingue (the French colony of Haiti) enslaved Africans rose up against French leadership, led by Toussaint L'Ouverture.  Napoléon sent French soldiers to put down the uprising and L'Ouverture was imprisoned but the rebellion continued under the leadership of Jacques Dessalines.  Saint Domingue declared itself independent in 1804, renamed itself Haiti and became the first republic in Latin America.  Oddly enough, the U.S. refused to recognize the new country.  The Battle of Domingo by Polish artist January Suchodolski – a fight between Haitian rebels and Polish troops in French service

  17. Selim III As the Ottoman Empire dangled on the edge of destruction (how’s that for flowery language?), Selim sought to reform the empire, declaring much bolder action was needed. During the last decade of the 1700s and first of the 1800s, he aggressively went after greater administrative efficiency and rebuilding a new army and navy but the moves angered those within the bureaucracy who were vested in the old system. One group in particular, the Janissary corps, saw the reforms as a direct threat. Selim’s attempts not only cost him his title but later, his life at the hands of the Janissaries. His successor, Mustafa IV, ordered his strangulation.

  18. Kamehameha I Between 1794 and 1810, the then-young Hawaiian prince was convinced that by adopting western-style manners and methods, he would more easily conquer and control the highly divided and clannish society he sought to rule. He was able to unite the islands. Supported by British weaponry and advice, Kamehameha was able to secure control and as king, he encouraged economic change, including the introduction of western merchants who would profit from Hawaiian goods in exchange for money given to the king. While capable of cruelty himself, he also limited the antics of some of the harsher tribal chieftains and outlawed human sacrifice.

  19. Factory System It refers to the methods by which European countries grew more industrialized, through the mass production of increasingly cheaper goods within the confines of factories.  Early conditions of factories were pretty dangerous and workers were not compensated fairly or adequately.  Government legislation and labor unions would eventually work to protect and extend the rights of workers.  Normally, factories were centrally located in urban areas, near sources of energy like water or coal fields.  Mass production of goods were allowable due to advances in interchangeable parts and assembly line production.  Capitalist ideas like competition forced factories to find ways to make things faster, cheaper and more efficient.

  20. Toussaint L’Ouverture He was the leader of a slave rebellion against French authorities on the colony of Saint Domingue (Haiti).  Even though he was a slave himself, he was education and knowledgeable in the ideals of the Enlightenment.  He led the army against French forces.  He was eventually imprisoned and later died but his movement did not perish and in 1803, the newly-named Haiti gained its independence.

  21. Latin American independence movement (1800s) The revolutions in America and France along with the Enlightenment ideals spurred a similar movement in the Spanish-controlled regions of Latin America.  The first to go rouge was Haiti in 1803 after a slave revolt.  In the rest of the region, it was peninsulares and their privilege that motivated creoles to rise up and spread revolutionary fervor.  Most Latin American countries declared independence when their parent country was dealing with the shenanigans of Napoléon.  Some of the more important leaders were Simon Bolivar who fought Spanish rule in South America and Miguel Hidalgo, a priest who won appeal among the mestizo and native populations in Mexico.  Even though most of Latin America was independent by 1825, some of the resultant independent governments were autocracies or oligarchies that lasted well into the 20th-century.

  22. Social Darwinism (1800s) Borne out of the ideas of Charles Darwin, it was the concept that explained why some businesses or countries succumbed to others; because of the "survival of the fittest" or that only the strong can and should win out. 

  23. João VI In 1807, the French invaded Portugal and in doing so, forced the Portuguese government into exile – in Brazil. King Dom João VI situated himself in Rio de Janeiro and the city was transformed into an imperial abode. Advancements in learning, libraries, gardens, as well as printing presses and increased commerce (particularly with England) characterized the move. In 1820, when Napoléon was defeated and a liberal revolution erupted in Portugal, the king returned leaving Pedro, his son, in charge of Brazil and suggested if independence comes to Brazil, he should lead it.

  24. Spheres of Influence (1800s) These were areas of economic control or influence held by various European powers and Japan in China.  These powers took advantage of a weak China and unfair treaty obligations to secure footholds.  Countries like Germany, France, Italy, Russia and Japan all held spheres of influence to maintain and guarantee profits.  The presence of foreigners eventually led to uprisings like the Boxers in 1900.

  25. “New” Imperialism (1800s-1900s) Following the European expansion period of the 1500s and 1600s, this later incarnation in the late 1800s pertained to wealthy countries seeking economic control over weaker states.  Such footholds in other areas allowed for military bases and imperialistic competition as well as the search for markets and natural resources.  The main justification for such tactics included the spread of Christianity, Social Darwinism and the concept of the "white man's burden."

  26. Ottoman Empire – the Fall (1800s-1900s) By the end of the 19th-century, the Ottoman empire was so weak that its European neighbors took to calling it the "sick, old man of Europe."  It lost territory in Russia and the Balkans and the subsequent weakness led to various calls for revolution.  One of the major reasons was the general shift of trade from land to sea routes, which cut out the Ottoman middlemen.  Additionally, the British and French interfered in its internal affairs as it grew stronger.  By 1900, like the Chinese on the other side of Asia, the empire tried reforms but it was too little, too late.

  27. Socialism(1800s-1900s) It is important to know that there are different types of socialism.  The Utopian kind who sought to create a perfect society but that did not work out too well.  The next stage of socialists were those who sought to create a classless society with control held by the workers.  This version was best described by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.  Marx's book, The Communist Manifesto, suggested that a class warfare between the rich (bourgeoisie) and the workers (proletariat) would end with the workers controlling the means of production.  The Soviet Russians would be the first to adopt the ideals of Marx to become the world's first communist country. Others, like North Korea (left) followed in the following decades.

  28. Qing Dynasty – the Fall(1800s-1900s) The Qing began reforms in the late 19th-century but it was a case of too little, too late.  Unable to control the internal unrest in the country, a revolution broke out in 1911, spearheaded by the Kuomingtang (Nationalists) who had slowly gained momentum after the death of the Empress Dowager, Cixi (left).  In 1912, the last emperor abdicated his throne and a new government, led by Sun Yat-sen, was created along republican lines.

  29. Nguyen Dynasty (1802-1945) The Nguyen represent the last Vietnamese dynasty. They first gained control of the southern portion of the modern-day country during the latter period of the Le dynasty. Gia Long was the founder of the dynasty, conquering the whole of Viet Nam in 1802. When the French charged in 1858, the controlled the entire country but left the Nguyen in charge of centeral (Annam) and southern (Tonkin) Viet Nam. The last emperor, Bao Dai, abdicated his throne upon the declaration of an independent Viet Nam in 1945.

  30. Mahmud II After his brother, Mustafa IV was deposed as sultan, Mahmud II took power in 1808. He continued the reforms began by Selim III – in fact, he succeeded where his predecessor did not. He secretly built up an army and then, egged the Janissaries into revolt and unleashed his new army. The Janissaries were destroyed. He subdued the ayans (nobles) and then, pushed through aggressive reforms such as improving relations with Europeans, civil service reforms in order to curb corruption among government officials and re-modeling his military along western European lines. While Muhammad Ali of Egypt ate away at his empire in northern Africa, when he died in 1839, his empire was relatively sound and secure.

  31. Fr. Miguel de Hidalgo A Creole priest, Hidalgo rallied the Amerindians and mestizos of his region (modern-day central Mexico) in 1810. His Grito de Delores (“Cry of Delores”) speech rallied people to his cause. He was able to gain some early victories before his class abandoned him, fearing social upheaval more than the lack of independence. Hidalgo was later captured and executed for his rebellion but the revolutionary movement still simmered throughout the country. Today, modern-Mexico independence celebrations include a recitation of the “Cry of Delores” and Hidalgo is looked back upon as a national hero.

  32. Simon Bolívar He was a Creole from South America who was responsible for the revolutionary movement against Spain in that region.  He, like the revolutionaries in America and France, was motivated and inspired by the Enlightened ideals.  It was his dedication and military leadership that lead to the independence of Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador.  José de San Martín helped with the independence of Argentina and Chile.  Bolívar hoped to create a unified country out of the various states in South America but that dream never materialized. A portrait of the South American liberator

  33. Muhammad Ali He was the ruler of Egypt after the failed invasion of Napoléon Bonaparte in 1798.  Even within the admittedly weakening Ottoman Empire, Ali was able to create an autonomous state.  He is known for his modernization efforts in the areas of industrialization and the military. A portrait of the ruler of Egypt, Muhammad Ali; an ethnic Albanian born in Greece

  34. Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) In session from 1814 to 1815, it comprised representatives of those countries who defeated Napoléon Bonaparte.  Their objective was to restore Europe to its pre-French Revolution condition.  It was led by Prince Metternich of Austria and their particular goals were to restore the French monarchy and create a balance of power to ensure this type of instability would not happen again.  While not perfect, Europe would not face another major war until World War I.  Yet another gathering of European leaders, this time to decide the fate of France.

  35. Holy Alliance (1815) Signed by Alexander I of Russia, Frederick Wilhelm III of Prussia and Francis I of Austria, this alliance declared that it would conduct its national policy on the basis of Christian principles. It was borne out of a religious phase that Alexander was going through at the time. Ultimately, the agreement was used to oppress the people of eastern and central Europe and promote the old monarchial system.

  36. Greek Revolution (1820) This refers to an uprising of the Greeks against the Ottomans. Rebels, grabbing control of the Peloponnese, declared independence in 1822. While Egypt helped the Ottomans recapture control of some parts of the Peloponnese, the European powers rose to the defense of the Greeks. An agreement in 1830 in London led to the creation of an independent Greece.

  37. Pedro I When João VI left Brazil to return to his throne in Portugal in 1820, he left his son Pedro in charge of the colony. As Brazilians demanded greater political freedom, Pedro led the charge and declared himself a constitutional monarch in 1822. Though he had led the move towards an independent Brazil, he was representative of the class of people who opposed it and he was forced to abdicate his throne in Brazil to his five-year-old son, Pedro II. He later returned to Portugal to become king upon his father’s death but he soon abdicated his throne again, this time to Queen Maria II.

  38. Monroe Doctrine (1823) Supported and concocted by the British to protect its interests while caught up with issues at home and endorsed and announced by President James Monroe, the Monroe Doctrine was the U.S. telling European powers that all issues with countries in the western hemisphere would have to use the U.S. as a mediator and were not allowed to bring a military presence to the region.  Not only does it keep the Europeans out, it gives the U.S. tacit approval to intervene in Latin American affairs.

  39. Decembrist uprising (1825) After the death of Alexander I, a group of reformers from the military sought to prevent the ascension of Nicholas I to the throne of Russia. The majority of these officers were veterans of the Napoleon conflict a decade earlier and had been influenced by some of the more liberal ideas out of western Europe. It is known as the first “bourgeois” revolution against Russian imperial rule. While passionate in their hopes and aspirations, they were not particularly effective, the rebellion was not well thought out and the conclusion was predictable. While military officers made up the majority of the insurgents, the vast majority of the military were loyal to the new czar and with artillery, they easily suppressed the revolt, killing about 80. Some of the rebels were executed but most were sent to Siberia while others were demoted and placed in prison units.

  40. Andrés Santa Cruz Originally an anti-independence military officer, he later joined Jose de San Martin. He later led the charge of Bolivian independence and served as its president. He worked to build up Bolivia but also sought to bring Peru into a confederation, who at the time was seeking an alliance with Chile. This was a part of a unification attempt by the indigenous peoples of both countries. He attempted to accomplish this by causing problems in Peru and then invaded in 1835. His enemies joined forces and defeated him and compelled him to seek asylum in Europe, where he spent the rest of his life. Chile would turn out much more successful than the other two countries over the next century and a half.

  41. Reform Bill of 1832 The British parliament passed the Reform Bill to expand who had the right to vote to those who lived in the industrial towns – a group of people who previously had not been represented in parliament. It was pushed by Prime Minister Earl Grey and introduced by MP Earl Russell. While the House of Commons passed it easily, the House of Lords were less inclined to do so. When PM Grey threatened to add enough new House of Lords members to pass the bill, the upper house finally passed the measure. While it did not give all people the right to vote, it did allow more of the middle class in the cities a say in matters and took power away from the rural, landowning political power centers. It was part of a general trend in Europe to expand the electorate to quell growing discontent from the under-represented. Debate on the Reform Bill within the House of Lords

  42. Antonio López de Santa Anna When liberals attempted to create an Enlightened republic in Mexico in the early 1830s, it ran into trouble in attacking the power of the church and the turmoil brought General Santa Anna to power. Because Mexico was in constant political and economic trouble, foreign invasions were always hinted it and that was the source of Santa Anna’s power – as defender of Mexico. Under his watch, Mexico lost Texas in 1836 and the northwestern portion of the country as a result of the Mexican-American War in 1848. A new generation of liberals pushed Santa Anna out of power for good by the 1850s.

  43. Leopold of Belgium Leopold II is best known for his control over the Congo Free State in central Africa as  the one major colony of the small European country.  Leopold grew filthy rich off the wealth of the land and since it was not under direct Belgium control, he did not have to expend money to rule it as such.  He used locals as a slave force upon large rubber plantations.  By 1908, protests about conditions led to Belgium taking direct control over the colony.  Leopold's methods and the subsequent wealth he gained from it led to Europeans flooding the unknown or little known world in search of wealth.

  44. Chartist movement (1838-1848) In the wake of industrialization throughout Europe, as started in England, it pushed for a greater political voice and regulation of new technology being brought into factories. It also hoped for new education reform to include everyone in order to give working men more choices and greater freedom. However, the British parliament continued to ignore the protest and demands and eventually, by 1848, the movement died out. Still, similar movements continued throughout Europe and over the next several decades, workers continued to push for greater demands and eventually, began to achieve the original goals.

  45. Tanzimat reforms (1839-1876) Over the course of the reforms, wide ranging changes took place within the Ottoman Empire. These reforms included western-style university education, modernization of the sciences and maths, postal and telegraph system was introduced, expansive railways, newspapers popped up and legal reforms were put into place (again, following the western European model) which helped and improved the lives of minority ethnic groups. Women received little of the improvements and political empowerment that was seen throughout the empire for other groups. The extent of these reforms created a conservative backlash in the form of Abdul Hamid during his rule from 1878 to 1908.

  46. Opium War(1839-1842; 1856-1860) It was a war that China waged against the British over the latter selling opium in Chinese ports.  Its value was given in silver and the unequal balance of trade threatened the relationship.  In 1839, Chinese officials, led by Lin Zexu, ordered the elimination and destruction of all opium.  Britain responded by attacking Chinese interests.  The war was not much of one as the British easily won and then forced China to accept the horribly unjust Nanking Treaty where the Chinese had to pay for the war and the destroyed opium crop as well as open other ports to foreign trade.  As China weakened, other Europeans moved in to carve out spheres of influence.  The sustained presence of foreigners in China led to the rise of secret societies who targeted the westerners but also the monarchial government that led the outsiders in.

  47. Abdul Hamid II Coming to power in response to the radical Tanzimat reforms, Abdul Hamid II immediately set out to reverse some of the “damages” caused by the earlier sultans under the guise of the Tanzimat reforms. He abolished the constitution and severely restricted the civil liberties that some enjoyed under the previous regimes. Those who had a problem with his approached could be tortured or killed. The only area where he maintained westernized efforts were with the military with German advisors and infrastructure like telegraph and railways lines – in particular, a line that was to connect Berlin and Baghdad. In 1908, a near bloodless coup powered by exiled liberals and intellectuals overthrew Hamid in the form of the Ottoman Society for Union and Progress (Young Turks).

  48. Mexican-American War (1846-1848) U.S. President James K. Polk declared war against Mexico for, in part, an argument over the southern border of Texas. The subsequent war was a proving ground for future Civil War military leaders and in accordance to the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Mexico handed over the modern-day American southwest. The loss of territory created a large void of territory and, as later discovered, fantastic natural resources. States such as New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Nevada and California were added and lent to the argument of “manifest destiny” and the American claim of North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. It created greater liberal voices in Mexico for political and economic reform and led to the leadership of Benito Juarez in the latter 1850s.

  49. Karl Marx He was a 19th-century philosopher who called for and predicted the workers controlling society and the means of production as a means of wiping out capitalistic economic systems.  Marx's ideas are enumerated in The Communist Manifesto in 1848.  His ideas saw fruition in 1917 when V.I. Lenin, the head of the Bolshevik Party in Russia, took over his country and turned it into the world's first communist state.

  50. Cixi Cixi oversaw the decline of not only the Qing Dynasty but dynastic rule in China though, not by designed. Initially, she governed in place of her six year old emperor son. She oversaw the dealing of the Taiping uprising and the using of foreign forces to help put it down. Initially, she tried to placate forces in her country with the self-strengthening movement that ultimately did not diminish her power. Her lack of control over her country ultimately led to the Boxer uprising in 1900. Her failure to deal with the uprising against foreign presence in China (some sources say she secretly supported it) led to foreign forces coming in again, this time, uninvited. Her rule was irreversibly diminished as a result of the uprising and its subsequent treaty. In 1902, she began to put in place those reforms she had been putting off prior to the uprising. She died in 1908.