Presentation of methodologies and instruments to collect data on women’s and men’s unpaid work and household production ************************ From Time Use data to Gender aware modeling
OBJECTIVE AND EXPECTED OUTCOME • Objective • To understand the purpose, concepts and methods of time-use surveys • Expected outcome • Better understanding by the participants of the objectives, concepts of time-use surveys and how to do them.
WHY TIME USE STATISTICS? Beijing Platform For Action has called for developing “suitable statistical means to recognize and make visible the full extent of the work of women and all their contributions to the national economy including their contribution in the unremunerated and domestic sectors…” (UN Beijing Declaration, Platform For Action? 1995).
WHY TIME USE STATISTICS? The concept of production boundary in the SNA and the women’s work The System of National Accounts (SNA) tries to provide a comprehensive and detailed record of the complex economic activities taking place within an economy and of the interaction between the different economic agents, and groups of agents that takes place on markets.
WHY TIME USE STATISTICS? Taking into account the definition of the production boundary, human activities in any society, can be divided in three main sectors: I. Activities that fall into the SNA (SNA activities) including the market oriented production activities in primary (agriculture), secondary (industry), and tertiary (trade, services) sectors, and some non- market oriented activities such as producing goods for own consumption (subsistence production).
WHY TIME USE STATISTICS? II. Non-market oriented activities, which essentially generate services produced by households without monetary transactions. These activities arefor example: · Providing unpaid domestic services for own or household members (cleaning, cooking, looking after the children or elder and sick persons…) · Providing community services and help to other households, fall outside the SNA production boundary, but within the general production boundary
WHY TIME USE STATISTICS? III. Personal activities, which are not considered as production activities such as sleeping, eating, washing and dressing oneself and all leisure activities. All these three types of human activities contribute to human well being as they provide goods and services of different kind for human consumption.
WHY TIME USE STATISTICS? • The economy from a gender perspective • The private sector produces marketed goods and services, which are consumed by the three others sectors. • The public sector provides public services as national security and defense, by collecting taxes and user fees and proceeds to income transfers among the others sectors. • The domestic or household sector provides labor forces to the three others sectors, which would be unable to create wealth without this labor force. • The NGO sector provides social, recreational and cultural services to the rest of the economy.
WHY TIME USE STATISTICS? A way to highlight women’s real contribution to the economy is to measure the time spent by women on unpaid work to produce those goods and services The Time-Use Survey (TUS) is currently the most appropriate tool to assess the paid (market work) and the unpaid work (non-market work), both of women and men and to estimate the contribution of this invisible unpaid work to human welfare, and to the economy.
WHY TIME USE STATISTICS? • The 1995 Human Development Report used Time-Use data from 31 countries to show up women’s status in the world and to measure their contributions to economies. The main finding of this report was that if both the paid and unpaid works are considered, women did a larger share of work in developing and developed countries
WHY TIME USE STATISTICS? This women’s work, which is important for human well-being, is for a larger part unpaid and not considered in national accounting system. The conclusion of this report was that “much of women’s work remains unrecognized and unvalued. This has an impact on the status of women in society, their opportunities in public life and the gender blindness of development policy” (United Nations, 1995).
WHY TIME USE STATISTICS? Then starts a growing international movement promoting the inclusion of unpaid work in the National Accounting System, with a special focus on the importance of Time-Use surveys for this purpose. Many countries around the world including several African countries (South Africa, Nigeria, Benin, Morocco, Madagascar? Tanzalia and Tunisia...) have conducted Time-Use surveys and then came the need to harmonize the methodology of how to conduct the Time-Use surveys.
WHAT ARE TIME USE STATISTICS? • In practice, the concept of Time-Use survey makes reference to the fact that Time is the ultimate resource, which is shared equally by everyone. There are 24 hours in everyone’s day, which allows a comparative analysis of time spent by anybody. • That’s why analysis of Time-Use therefore offers an overview of all human activities (market and non-market work, consumption, community and leisure activities).
WHAT ARE TIME USE STATISTICS? Basically Time-Use survey will play an essential role to improve the current vision of the economy and of the statistical system and three reasons can explain this: Ø Time-Use survey helps to show a more complete presentation of the economy and society by providing vital information on those areas which are presently invisible in national accounts;
WHAT ARE TIME USE STATISTICS? • Time-Use survey contributes for better information on informal sectors in order to improve the estimation of economic activities (SNA work) In national accounts. • Time-Use survey highlights the importance of the non-market (unpaid) work, for maintaining the labour force and the human capital. Time-Use survey allows also an estimation of its contribution to the economy and long-term growth.
WHAT ARE TIME USE STATISTICS? Time-use statistics are quantitative summary of how women/girls and men/boys spend or allocate their time over a day, a week, and across seasons over a year. Time-Use surveys are designed to account for the nature, duration and location of all activities, which are carried out by the population during a reference period
HOW TO COLLECT TIME USE STATISTICS? • The basic methodological issues are almost common to all surveys, and they can be addressed through the different themes and questions listed below. • Method for the sample design The sample design refers to the choice of the population covered by the survey. The survey sample should be representative to the population of the country.
HOW TO COLLECT TIME USE STATISTICS? • The survey forms • The survey forms refer to the means of different instruments, which help to collect information about the household members. The three main tools are: • The household questionnaire • The individual questionnaire • The diary
HOW TO COLLECT TIME USE STATISTICS? • Method for the time diary approach The primary activity The secondary activities The time of activity The activity sequence The activity duration The activity location The social contacts To whom the activity is performed
To collect this information, the time diary approach uses several methods:Self completed diaryThe respondents are asked to fill in a diary, Face-to-face or telephone interviewThe respondents’ daily activities are observed and recorded by a third party, the interviewer.Selection of diary days and coverage of the yearThe general rule is that the more diary days for data collection, the better it will be. HOW TO COLLECT TIME USE STATISTICS?
HOW TO COLLECT TIME USE STATISTICS? The activity classification system In a time-Use survey, the activity is a basic unit of analysis, thus the nomenclature and classification of activities will be an important part of the planning, collection and analysis of Time-use data. The data can be easily compared between countries, if only there’s a standard system of activity classification, which must cover all aspects of human activity.
HOW TO COLLECT TIME USE STATISTICS? • The United Nations international classification system • SNA production (in the National Accounts) • 1. Employment for establishments’ • 2. Primary production not for establishments • 3. Other production of goods and services not for establishments • Non-SNA production (considered as productive but no included in National accounts) • 4. Household maintenance • 5. Care of persons in the household • 6. Community service to non-household members, • Non-productive (no included in National accounts) • 7. Learning • 8. Social and cultural includes activities • 9. Mass media • 10.Personal care
WHAT ARE NATIONAL TIME ACCOUNTS (NTA)? NTA are a set of estimates of our total income and expenditures of time, similar to the estimates of national income and expenditure, which account for our market transactions in the monetary sector. NTA provide measures , on a continuous and up-to-date basis, of how households allocate time between paid work, unpaid work and leisure.
WHAT ARE NATIONAL TIME ACCOUNTS (NTA)? They enable to capture and better understand the total economy, which includes not only the market production from the formal/monetary sector but also non-market production from the informal and household sectors. They enable a complete measurement of the economic activities: non-market production by households is at least as large as paid work. It is estimated that the work input for the total economy is twice as large as what is currently measured as work.
WHAT ARE SATELLITE ACCOUNTS HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTION? • The 1993 SNA makes provision for the investigation of concepts not specially highlighted initially. NSA are methods by which the central framework of the SNA is expanded to increase the analytical capacity of the system without overburdening or disrupting it. • NSAHP address the unpaid work and its integration into extended economic analysis inform policy-makers in designing effective pro-poor and gender equitable policy interventions.
WHAT ARE SATELLITE ACCOUNTS HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTION? They enable an analysis of the trade-off between household production and market production, and the impact of one on the other. They also facilitasse comparability of measures of extended production within a country at different points in time, enabling a long-term perspective analysis of growth, productivity, and distribution and capital formation.
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A NATIONAL SATELLITE ACCOUNTS OF UNPAID WORK AND HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTION? • Three methods can be used to value unpaid work and household production for constructing satellite accounts: • (1) The Output-based Method • (2) The Input-based Method using the opportunity cost • (3) The Input-based method using the market replacement method
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A NATIONAL SATELLITE ACCOUNTS OF UNPAID WORK AND HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTION? THE OUTPUT-BASED METHOD In this method, household production is valued on the basis of the output. Data needed: • Output of the unpaid work such as the number of meals prepared, items of clothing washed and ironed, • The wage rate per unit of output such as the labour charge for each meal prepared, charge per item of clothing washed and ironed.
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A NATIONAL SATELLITE ACCOUNTS OF UNPAID WORK AND HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTION? THE INPUT-BASED METHOD Most time-use studies use the Input-based methods. It involves the valuation of unpaid work based on wage. Such valuation is based on time spent in the various activities multiplied by the corresponding salaries.
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A NATIONAL SATELLITE ACCOUNTS OF UNPAID WORK AND HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTION? THE THREE APPROACHES TO THE INPUT-BASED METHOD • 1) Opportunity cost • (2) Replacement cost (specialist) • (3) Replacement cost (generalist)
A Gender-aware Macroeconomic Model The"core" model is adapted from the “Exter-Plus” archetype. It incorporates the principal characteristics of most of the models used in income distribution and poverty analysis of macroeconomic policies.
A Gender-aware Macroeconomic Model • The assumptions • segmentation of the labor market into male and female workers to highlight the gender bias observed in the South African economy. • Introduction of work-leisure choice of the household members who make a trade-off between working outside (market work) and performing household work or personal activities (leisure). • men are more likely to be producing market goods and services and take more leisure time. Women, meanwhile, are more likely to do the work of rearing and caring for children, caring for other household members, cooking, and cleaning.
A Gender-aware Macroeconomic Model The simulation simulation involves the elimination of all import tariffs where government revenue is maintained constant through an endogenous uniform increase in direct income taxes.
A Gender-aware Macroeconomic Model SIMULATION RESULTS The gender-aware SAM was able to demonstrate numerically that women’s contribution in non-market production in South Africa is almost double that of men and that women have 30-50% less time for personal care and the leisure than men at the household level.
A Gender-aware Macroeconomic Model SIMULATION RESULTS Elimination of import tariffs in South Africa would reduce real wages for women by more than double that of the male counter parts. • Elimination of tariffs would also reduce labor market participation by women while increasing that for men. • Trade liberalization would increase time burden on women in that they will spend roughly three times as much time in household production as men.
A Gender-aware Macroeconomic Model SIMULATION RESULTS All these strong results would go unnoticed if the SAM and the model were not sex disaggregated
A Gender-aware Macroeconomic Model SIMULATION RESULTS the gender decomposition of labor, combined with the hypothesis of imperfect substitution between male and female labor, allows to discover that trade liberalization has a much more positive effect on male real wage rates than on female real wage rates