Brass on the Low Side Christopher Heinze MusEd259 Tuesday September 25, 2007
Trombone Baritone Euphonium Tuba Sousaphone The Low Brass Family
The Trombone • The modern version of the Sackbut • Used in Renaissance religious ensembles mostly for voice doubling. • Used in the orchestra first in the 18th century • The first prominent symphonic use was in Beethoven’s Symphony #5
The Trombone Family • Alto Trombone • Tenor Trombone • F trigger • Range can go to a C2 • Bass Trombone • F and G trigger • Range extends to a B1 • Contrabass Trombone • A perfect fourth lower than the tenor and bass
Construction • Made of brass most commonly • Nickel and Silver are also used • Cylindrical bore • 9 feet (trigger trombone) • S shaped • A cup mouth piece where sound is produced by the buzzing of one’s lips. • How a Trombone is Made!!
Key and Transposition • B-flat • Transposition is CRAZY!!! • It doesn’t transpose it is written in Concert pitch
Written in mostly the bass clef but can be found in the tenor clef and sometimes the alto clef. Range from E2 to F5 for tenor and bass. Clef and Range
Resources and Tips for Beginners • Keep in mind the shape, length, and weight of the instrument. • The size of the mouth piece. • www.Musicked.com • www.dsokids.com
The Tuba • Development began in the early nineteenth century • The ophicleide was being produced in the 1820’s. A forerunner of the tuba was keyed. • In 1835 the first bass tuba in F was made by Johann Gottfried Moritz and Wilheim Wieprecht. • In 1849 the helicon bass was introduced. • Wrapped around the body • In 1870 the Sax-horns were invented by Adolfe Sax (the same Adolfe of the saxophones.) • Adopted by French Orchestras
Making a Tuba • Usually made from brass, but can also be made from nickel and silver. • Conical bore • 18-12 feet of tubing depending on the key and type of the tuba. • Made a variety of sizes: 3/4 4/4 5/4 6/4 • Usually has four valves • Models for younger students may only have three.
Euphoniums/Baritones Tenor Tuba pitched an octave higher Euphoniums usually have an extra valve Upright/Bell Front Tuba BBb Tuba Most Common CC Tuba Orchestras Eb Tuba Bombardons (1800’s) F Tuba (Wagner Tuba) Easier to play higher notes Used in Orchestras Types of Tubas
More Tubas!! Tuba d’amore- made from wood and nickel The Alpenhorn- from the alps Made from a solid piece of soft wood, usually spruce but sometimes pine. The Sousaphone- John P. Sousa Used by marching bands Convertible Tubas
Sound of the Tuba • Very low but can be mellow and soothing • It is often used to play quick staccato lines` but can also play sustained melodies. • Plays in Bass Clef • Played by buzzing of the lips.
BBb Tuba Plays a written Bb sounds a C Key of C No transposition Exceptions- Wagner Tuba (F) Key, Transposition, and Range
Introducing the Tuba • Really young student may benefit from the baritone at first • A 3/4 tuba can be used in middle school aged • The weight of the tuba • The size of the mouth piece • www.Musicked.com • http://www.nemusicpub.com/tips/tuba.html • www.dsokids.com
Bibliography • http://philharmonia.co.uk/thesoundexchange/home • http://www.Youtube.com • http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary • http://playmusic.org • http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Union/7926/history.htm • http://musicappreciation.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_tuba_and_how_it_is_played • http://www.bandparenting.net/tuba.html