Carbohydrates Efficient Energy: Necessary Nutrient
5 Primary Functions of CHO in the Diet • To supply energy to the body • To spare protein for tissue synthesis, growth and repair • To aid in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids • To promote normal lipid metabolism • To provide bulk (fiber) in the diet
Main Sources of CHO in Diet Plant Foods: Breads, Cereals, Pasta,Cookies, Crackers, Fruits, Veggies, Legumes Animal Foods: Dairy Products (lactose or milk sugar)
CHO Guidelines • 1. Intake = 55-65% of total kcal intake • 2000 kcals/day X .60 = 1200 kcals of CHO or 300 gm • 3.Limit refined sugars to no more than 10% of total • kcal • 2000 kcal/day X .10 = 200 CHO kcals or 22 gm sugar
Soft Drinks & Sugary Drinks • Typical 12 oz beverage contains 38 gm sugar • 1tsp = 4-5 gm = 16-20 kcals So, 38 gm/4 gm per tsp = 9-10 tsp of sugar in each 12 oz can! Lemonades and gatorades too
Classification of CHO Simple sugars (carbs) sugar, candy, honey, processed grains dairy, fruit Complex sugars (carbs) whole grains, veggies, legumes
Processed vs Complex CHO’s • Processed • White flour striped of fiber/nutrients • Causes blood sugar to go up faster • Sugar “carb” addiction • Little nutritional value • Usually high in fat too • Complex • Whole grain = higher fiber, more nutrients • Blood sugar rises slower, feel full longer • Good for colon and reducing cholesterol
What Should I Eat? • Cereals • Post Oat Squares, Kashi Heart to Heart, Oatmeal Raisin Crisp, Total, Wheat Chex, Frosted Mini Wheats • Crackers • RF Triscuits and Wheat Thins • Breads • Whole Wheat, Natures Own White Wheat, Bagels (whole wheat or Cinn Raisin, English Muffins (whole wheat or CR) Waffles (lifestream Flax) • Cookies • Southbeach, teddy grahams, vanilla wafers • Snacks • Kashi chewy granola bars, fruit, veggies with LF dip, LF yogurt, yogut smoothies (with fiber light nouriche?) • Dairy • Low fat versions
If your carb intake is too low. . . • Must eat at least 100 gm CHO/day to prevent ketosis. Recommend no less than 200 gm/day • Going below energy needs results in lack of gas for the car! • Body will find gas elsewhere using your dietary and body protein for gas • Gluconeogenesis • When there is less body protein (muscle) metabolism decreases and body holds onto your fat!
Stored Carbs Need Water! 1 gm CHO If we aren’t eating carbs, we use what we have and when they are gone, the water goes too! 3-4 gm H2O
Fiber is a Type of Carb! • Eat a variety of foods containing fiber -about 25-35 gm fiber/day • For a food to be a complex CHO it needs to have 3 gm fiber/serving or MORE! • Fiber grams can be subtracted from total carb grams which is what low carb diets do to get the net carbs of a food
Types of Fiber • Soluble • Oat bran, flesh of fruit, legumes • Insoluble • Wheat, veggies, skins of fruit
Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber • Slows glucose absorption • Reduces blood cholesterol/heart disease • Reduces problems associated with constipation
Your CHO/Fiber Intake • Look at your Fitday numbers • Weak areas = ? • Strong areas = ? • Improve by doing ?
Functions of Proteins Tissue Synthesis – structure, cells, tissue, organs, systems Regulatory Processes hormones, immune system Transportation and Storage HDL, LDL, RBC, hemoglobin Energy if needed
RDA for Protein for Sedentary Person • 0.8 gm of protein / kg of healthy body weight 154 lb. = 70 kg 2.2 kg/lb. 70 kg x 0.8 g protein = 56 g protein kg healthy body wt
RDA for Protein • Increased by ~10-15 gm /day for pregnancy • Strength Trainers may need 1.6 gm/kg Lemon et al, 1994 • Most of us consume more than the RDA for protein with the normal American Diet
Food needed to meet needs 60kg X 0.8gm = 48 gms Needed: 8 oz glass milk.......................2 servs.............16 gms meat.......................................4 oz .................21 gms fruits/veg................................7 serv...............16 gms Grains....................................6-11 serv.....12-22 gms TOTAL intake 65-75 gms So normal intake according to the FGP provides more than needs for sedentary person!
Protein Needs for EXERCISERS! 60kg X 1.6gm = 96 gm Food requirements: 8 oz glass milk.....................4 servs...........32 gms meat.....................................8 oz ...............42 gms fruits/veg..............................7 serv.............16 gms Grains..................................6-11 serv…….22 gms TOTAL intake 112 gms So, just two more glasses of milk and one more 4oz serving Of meat are needed to meet exercising protein needs!
Is A High-Protein Diet Harmful? • Intake of animal protein increases risk for heart disease • Excessive intake of red meat is linked with colon cancer • Increase calcium loss • Burden on the kidney • Increase fluid needs • National Academy of Sciences recommend no more than 2 x RDA (.8g/kg) for protein
Fat in food can be visible or invisible Energy dense (9 kcal /gm)
Fats vs Oils • Fats are solid at room temperature Tend to be of animal origin • Oils are liquid at room temperature Tend to be of plant origin
Types of Fat Saturated Fat Animal Source, Solid at room temp, clogs arteries H H H H C—C—C—H H H H
Exceptions to this rule • Coconut and Palm oil • Come from plants • Are oils • Are very high in saturated fat • No cholesterol though since it’s from a plant • Found in most processed baked goods, coatings on things, powdered creamer, cool whip
Unsaturated Fats • Plant Sources, • Liquid at room temp, • Heart Healthy Polyunsaturated Monounsaturated H H H C—C—C—H H H
Cholesterol • Found in any food coming from an animal • Meat, chicken, dairy, shrimp • Needed in the body for many functions • Liver makes all we need but. . .
Dietary intake of Cholesterol<300 mg/day High Cholesterol Foods Eggs Bacon Fatty meats Shrimp?????
Serum Cholesterol • Should be <200mg/dclHigh Cholesterol = >240mg/dcl • Reduce it by eating less SATURATED FAT first • Eat less cholesterol • Exercise 20 minutes 3X week in THR zone gives results • More Oat Bran!
Omega FatsHeart Healthy Fats Linolenic Acid Omega 3 FA Linoleic Acid Omega 6 FA
Omega-3 Fatty Acid • Primarily from cold water fish, fish oil • Also found in canola or soybean oil, flax seeds, walnuts • Recommended to eat fish 2 x per week • Decreases blood clot formation • Lowers risk of heart disease
Omega-6 Fatty Acid • Found in meats, other vegetable oils • Corn oil • Only need ~ 1 tablespoon a day • Increase blood clot • Increase inflammatory response • Ratio of 3:6 used to be 1:1 now it’s 1:20-40!
What is a Trans Fat? • An unsaturated fat is “hydrogenized” • Hyrdrogens are added to the chain • It is now a saturated fat but the shape it takes on is more harmful in the body than a naturally occurring saturated fat from meat or butter! • Trans fats will increase risk for heart disease
Minimize Intake of Trans Fatty Acid • Foods list 0 gms but can have .5gm • Allowed 2 gm per day! So. . . • Limit use of hydrogenated fats • Limit deep-fried foods • Limit high fat baked goods • Limit coated things • Limit use of non-dairy creamers
American Heart Association’s Recommendations • No RDA for fat but < 20-30% of total energy intake (TEI) from all fats • LESS is not better wrt fat intake! • Eliminate smoking • <8%% of TEI from saturated fat • < 10% of TEI from PUFA • < 15% of TEI from MUFA • < 300 mg dietary cholesterol/day • < 2400 mg sodium/day
Atherosclerosis--Hardening of the Arteries • (Fig. 5-12)
Signs of a Heart Attack • Intense, prolong chest pain • Shortness of breath • Sweating • Nausea and vomiting • Dizziness • Weakness • Jaw, neck, shoulder pain • Irregular heartbeat
Risk Factors for Heart Disease • Family History • Smoking • High Blood Pressure • High Fat/Sat Fat Diet • High Blood Cholesterol (hyperlipidemia) • Diabetes • Lack of Regular Exercise • Obesity • High intake of hard liquor
“Fat Free” Does Not Mean “All You Can Eat” • When fat is removed, sugar is usually put in its place • Same or higher kcal level as “non-fat-free” foods • Choose wisely