Sentence Sense The Comma Rules! Reigns!
Overview • Sentence building jargon • The basic types of sentences • What NOT to do • The Comma Rules • The Semicolon
Every sentence must have these three things • Subject • Verb • Complete idea
Phrase Clause A bunch of words with NO subject or verb A bunch of words with a subject and verb. Grammar Talk
Independent Can stand alone. Can be called a sentence. Dependent Cannot stand alone. Not a sentence because they DEPEND on an independent clause. Clauses come in many types
Dependent clauses have specific names depending on their function • Noun clauses act as nouns. • Adjective clauses act as adjectives. • Adverb clauses act as adverbs.
We need to know the grammar talk to use commas and other punctuation correctly. The comma rules!
How do we use independent and dependent clauses in sentences? • There are three types of sentences. • Do you know their names?
Simple1 independent clause • The Grand Canyon is in Arizona. • It is one of the most visited national parks in the country.
Compound2 or more independent clauses • It is one mile deep, and it is over 200 miles long. • Mario will visit in May, but Erin isn’t going until September.
Complex1 independent clause and at least 1 dependent clause • While they were there, they hiked a lot. • They had to carry a lot of water because the temperature reached 100 degrees. • The trail, which was created by Indians, leads to the Colorado River.
Coordinating conjunctions“Little words” • F A N B O Y S • For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So • These words are used to combine two things: independent clauses, nouns, or verbs • Use a comma to combine two independent clauses
Subordinating conjunctions • When, while, after, Although, because, since, before, etc. • These words often begin dependent clauses • Use a comma at the end of an introductory clause.
Who Which That Whom Whose What Relative Pronounsaka Adjective Pronouns
The Most Common Relative Pronouns • Who = people only • Which = things only • That = either
Nelson Mandela, who had been the most widely known figure in the struggle against apartheid, became the first democratically elected president of South Africa. • South Africa, which is located at the southern most region of Africa, has experienced a different history from other nations in Africa due to its early immigration from Europe and the strategic importance of the Cape Sea Route.
No Comma before THAT • The country that thrived on the trans-Sahara trade is Guinea-Bissou when it was part of the Mali empire. • Burkina Faso hosts a popular Pan-African film festival that attracts filmmakers from across the continent. ,THAT
Whose does not always pertain to people • The Republic of Congo, whose capital lies directly on the equator, is 2/3 rainforest. • The diamond mines of Angola, whose value cannot be overestimated, employ thousands.
Conjunctive Adverbs or transition words – “big words” • therefore, however, consequently, as a result, moreover, furthermore, namely, similarly, on the other hand, overall, in conclusion. • These words are set off on both sides with punctuation.
Transition words can go in the beginning, middle, or end. • Therefore, we should review our work frequently. • We should, therefore, review our work frequently. • We should review our work frequently, therefore.
Combining Sentences • Sentences can only be combined one of two ways: • With comma and a FAN BOYS Or • With a semicolon
, and I I • Compound ; I I ; therefore, I I
, which is located in West Africa, • Complex D I (interrupted) because I D Because D I ,
Your turn, then compare Write four sentences: one simple, one compound, and two complex (one with a subordinating conjunction and one with a relative pronoun
http://grammar. ccc.commnet.edu/ grammar The Guide to Grammar and Writing Look at the second oval on the right. Click on the drop down arrow and choose 170+ Interactive QUIZZES. Try # 64: Types of Sentences
Bad (incorrect) sentences • Run-on – 2 independent clauses combined with no punctuation. Also called a fused sentence. • Comma splice – 2 independent clauses combined with only a comma. • Fragment – Not a sentence. Missing a subject, verb or complete idea.
What’s the problem? fragment • As for African Americans themselves, in Montgomery. • They showed the world that they could organize brilliantly and work courageously to reach their goals. no problem!
run-on -- fused • The old passivity was gone an exuberant new sense of dignity and destiny replaced it. • The news from Greensboro hit home for a whole generation of black students, the pictures on TV of the Greensboro sit-in galvanized many of them into action. run-on - comma splice
fragment • In the first two weeks after Greensboro. • There were sit-ins against segregation laws in fifteen other southern cities, by April, it was seventy-eight cities, and by year’s end, 70,000 people had taken part in demonstrations. run-on - comma splice
http://grammar. ccc.commnet.edu/ grammar The Guide to Grammar and Writing Look at the second oval on the right. Click on the drop down arrow and choose 170+ Interactive QUIZZES. Try # 68: Fragments and Run-ons
The comma rules • Series • Compound sentence • Intro word, phrase, clause • Extra info (appositive) • Quotes • Double adjectives and Misc.
Every day on the computer I check my email, use PowerPoint, and revise excel sheets. • Using a computer makes my work easier, but I still seem to have a lot to do. • Personally, I couldn’t live without a computer
In the beginning, I had trouble working with the mouse. • Although I’ve learned a lot, I’ve discovered that there’s always more to know about computers. • Mr. Attey, one of the computer teachers, has been very patient working with the students.
He always says, “practice makes perfect.” • It has been a long, difficult process at times.
The Semicolon Your friend
The Semicolon has two uses #1To combine two closely related sentences Access helps to collect and arrange information; it’s a database program.
#2To combine “monster lists” Last year, Fatima visited Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Conakry, Guinea; Dakar, Senegal; and Nouakchott, Mauritania.
Introducing… The Colon
The Colon • The colon introduces something: a word, phrase, or even a complete sentence. • It only goes where a period could go.
For example • Mikey would only eat one thing for breakfast: Cherrios. • He hated everything: eggs, waffles, juice. • He only made one demand: “Give me Cherrios!”
--The Dash-- • Sets off items when a comma is inappropriate. • It also adds drama because it draws attention.
For example • Michael Jordon – the greatest living basketball player of the world – is my son’s idol. • He was not corrupted by money – unlike many of his contemporaries.
http://grammar. ccc.commnet.edu/ grammar The Guide to Grammar and Writing Look at the second oval on the right. Click on the drop down arrow and choose 170+ Interactive QUIZZES. Try # 85: Punctuation
http://grammar. ccc.commnet.edu/ grammar The Guide to Grammar and Writing Look at the bottom left oval. Click on the drop down arrow and choose PowerPoint Presentations. Review this lesson by studying the following PowerPoint Presentations: Clauses: Essential Building Blocks, The English House of Commas, Your Friend the Semicolon, and any others that strike your fancy.
Congratulations! You are now well on your way toward becoming a better writer.