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  2. SC.E.1.4.1

  3. SC.E.1.4.1 Tides • The gravity of the Moon and Sun combine to pull on the Earth’s Oceans and form either Spring(Large Tidal Range) or Neap Tides(Small Tidal Range).

  4. Lunar Eclipse • When the Moon moves into the large shadow of the Earth we observe a lunar eclipse.

  5. Solar Eclipse • This occurs when the moon passes between the sun and the Earth

  6. Location of Visible Solar Eclipses

  7. Solar Eclipse

  8. SC.E.1.4.1 Phases of the Moon • When the lighted side of the moon is fully visible we see a full moon. • When the lighted side of the moon is not visible we see a new moon.

  9. Phases of the Moon

  10. Here’s what they look like:

  11. Sample Question 1 The new moon is caused by the relative positions of Earth, moon, and sun. Why is the moon not visible during the new moon phase? A.Sunlight is not being reflected off the moon. B.The location of the moon is between Earth and the sun. C.The far side of the moon is the only visible side. Using background knowledge, compare the influence of the moon and the sun on the Earth’s tides.

  12. SC.E.1.4.2

  13. SC.E.1.4.2 INNER PLANETS • First four planets that are small, dense, and have rocky surfaces. 1. Mercury-Virtually no atmosphere 2. Venus-Highest surface temp.(475 C) 3. Earth-It’s ALIVE 4. Mars-Low pressure atmosphere; mostly carbon dioxide. Coldest average surface temp.

  14. SC.E.1.4.2 OUTER PLANETS • The gas giants are much larger and more massive than Earth. • Composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. • The four gas giants have thick atmospheres, multiple moons, and a set of rings.

  15. Sample Question 2 1. The four inner planets in the solar system are often called “terrestrial planets”. The four outer planets are referred to as the “Jovian planets”. Which of the following does NOT describe the terrestrial planets. • A.Their densities are about 5 times that of water. • B.They consist mostly of rocky and metallic substances. • C.They are the closest to the sun and are sometimes called the “inner planets”. • D.They are mostly gaseous and contain large amounts of hydrogen and helium.

  16. SC.E.1.4.3

  17. SC.E.1.4.3 To support life a planet needs: • A relatively constant temperature range. This depends a lot on having an atmosphere. • Natural cycles of nutrients. Examples are Water, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon cycle. • Cycling of energy. Examples wind and water currents. • MOST IMPROTANT: Water is in the liquid state!!!! Better known as the Goldie Locks Zone. This is a certain distance range that a planet can be so that it is not to cold or not to warm for water to be a liquid.

  18. Sample Questions 3 • Earth supports a great deal of life on and below its surface. The moon and Earth are about the same distance from the Sun. Explain why the moon is unable to support life!

  19. SC.E.2.4.1

  20. SC.E.2.4.1 • The life span of a star depends on its mass. Low-mass stars use their fuel more slowly than massive stars. • There are 3 general categories of stars: low-mass, medium-mass, and massive. • Low and medium stars eventually become black dwarf stars. These are called Main Sequence Stars. Our Sun is a Main Sequence Star. • Stars that are five to six times as massive as the Sun can create a blackhole.

  21. This diagram shows the lifecycles for medium and large mass stars. Low mass stars do the same as the top diagram (medium stars) but never turn into Red Giants. They skip this step in the process.

  22. Sample Question 4 1. Scientists determine a star’s size, temperature and age from limited information. Since they cannot get close to study the star, which piece of information is the most helpful in determining the star’s life cycle? • A.radius of the star • B.position of the star • C.mass of the star • D.distance from Earth to star

  23. SC.E.2.4.2

  24. SC.E.2.4.2 • The universe is strewn with large scale structures which are separated by vast amounts of empty space. • From large to small: Universe> Galactic Superclusters >Galactic clusters> Galaxies: spiral, elliptical, and irregular > Star Systems(Local Group)> Nebula,Solar Systems> Planets > Comets, Asteroids, Meteorites

  25. Comets • Comets revolve around the sun in large orbits of their own. They cross the planet’s orbits and can even have orbits that take them farther than the farthest planet.

  26. Comets are comprised of mostly dirt and ice. When they come close to the sun the ice melts and a tail appears that always points away from the sun. Halley’s Comet

  27. Asteroids • A small, rocky body that moves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. • They are too small to have atmospheres, and occasionally fall to Earth as Meteorites. • They range in size from few feet wide to several hundred miles wide.

  28. Most are usually located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter

  29. Meteor/Meteoroid/Meteorites • A Meteorite is an object, usually a chunk of metal or rock, that survives entry through the atmosphere to reach the Earth's surface. Meteors become meteorites if they reach the ground. • Sometimes people call them shooting Stars when they fall to the Earth

  30. SC.E.2.4.3

  31. SC.E.2.4.3 • Astronomical Units(AU) are used because they are convenient for measuring distances in our solar system. It is the average distance from the Earth to the Sun. • 1 AU = 150 million kilometers • Astronomers also use other units like light-years and parsecs. • A Light-year is the distance that light will travel in one year. This is used for measuring things like the size of a galaxy and bigger. • A Parsec is 3.3 light years and is used for measuring distances between nearby stars.

  32. Sample Question 5 • Earth is 1 AU from the Sun. Light from the Sun reaches Earth in approximately 8.3 minutes. Jupiter is 5 AU from the Sun. • How long, in minutes, would it take light from the Sun to reach Jupiter?

  33. SC.E.2.4.3-Answer 41.5 minutes! At the speed of light 1AU = 8.3 min, Therefore for 5AU it would take five times as long for the light to travel. (5 x 8.3 min =) LIVE LONG AND PROSPER!