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Expansion and the Age of Jackson

Expansion and the Age of Jackson. “The Era of Good Feelings” Begins. Called this because of lack of political strife in country (only party is DR) Emphasis on national pride and building the nations infrastructure. James Monroe. Elected in 1817 - 1825 Democrat Republican

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Expansion and the Age of Jackson

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  1. Expansion and the Age of Jackson

  2. “The Era of Good Feelings” Begins • Called this because of lack of political strife in country (only party is DR) • Emphasis on national pride and building the nations infrastructure

  3. James Monroe • Elected in 1817 - 1825 • Democrat Republican • Favored sending freed slaves back to Africa • Liberia’s capital Monrovia is named after him

  4. Henry Clay • Politician from Kentucky • The American System – raise tariffs to protect US businesses and build infrastructure (roads, canals etc.) • He supported the National Bank

  5. Florida • In 1810 the panhandle of Florida declares its independence from Spain • James Madison annexes the territory to the United States

  6. Florida Continued • Andrew Jackson invades Florida in 1814, he was fighting Native Americans but also attacked the Spanish • Adams-Onis Treaty – 1819, Spain cedes all of Florida to the US, the western border of Louisiana Purchase is decided

  7. The Missouri Compromise • Signed into Law in 1820 • Issue was balancing voting power between slave and free states in the Senate • Henry Clay is given credit for the compromise

  8. Maine enters as a Free State • Missouri enters as a Slave State • No Slavery north of the 36-30 parallel line • Monroe favored Self-Determination

  9. The Monroe Doctrine • Document declares that the America’s (North and South America) were off limits for future European colonization • South America is in the United States “Sphere of Influence”

  10. Initially the US had no way to enforce the doctrine • The British Navy enforced the doctrine for the US because the British were protecting their trade with the new nations forming in South America

  11. The Election of 1824 • Known as the “Battle of the Favorite Sons” • 4 different Democrat-Republicans run for the presidency

  12. Andrew Jackson – Senator from Tennessee • Henry Clay – Speaker of the House (Kentucky) • William H. Crawford – Secretary of the Treasury • John Quincy Adams – Secretary of State

  13. Election Results

  14. The Corrupt Bargain • Andrew Jackson wins the popular vote but not a majority in the electoral college

  15. House of Reps votes were Clay uses his influence as speaker to get JQ Adams elected • Clay becomes Secretary of State for JQ Adams • Was this fair?

  16. John Quincy Adams • Elected in a “Corrupt Bargain” • Wanted to focus on the infrastructure of America, but nothing major was accomplished • He did not participate in the patronage system.

  17. The Age of Jackson Begins • After the Election of 1824, Andrew Jacksons followers prevent J.Q. Adams from having an efficient presidency • Why would they do that?

  18. Election of 1828 • J.Q. Adams vs. Andrew Jackson • Jackson wins • Both campaigns participate in mudslinging • The Democrat-Republican party splits • Jacksons followers = Democrats • Henry Clays followers = Whigs

  19. Election of 1828

  20. Who are the Whigs? • Whig party favored Congress having more power than the President • The name was chosen to honor American revolutionaries “Whigs” who stood up against Tyranny • They have 2 members elected President

  21. Age of the Common Man • Jackson was portrayed as a “common man” • Jackson was a wealthy land owner • White males no longer had to own land to be able to vote

  22. Spoils System – 10% of federal employees fired • President can appoint people to federal positions

  23. Bank of the US • The charter for the Bank of the US was expiring • Jackson does not like the bank, so he veto's the renewal

  24. States Rights Issues • Tariff of Abomination – 1828 • South forced to buy expensive Northern goods • Southern States lose $$$ • John Calhoun (from SC) was opposed to it • Doctrine of Nullification • Written by Calhoun • If 13 states agree they can nullify a federal law

  25. Native Americans • Jackson tries to assimilate them • Indians would not give up their culture • Differences could not be resolved • Jacksons solution was to move them • Removal Act of 1830 • Forced Indians west of the Mississippi River • Cherokee Indians file lawsuit

  26. Trail of Tears • 1838 – 20,000 Cherokee Indians living in south • Ordered to be removed and travel 800 miles on foot • ¼ die on the trip west, where they receive inferior land

  27. Panic of 1837 • States stopped accepting paper $$$ • This was due to Jacksons “pet banks” failing • Many people head west to get a fresh start

  28. Transportation • 1825 – Erie Canal Finished (connected the Hudson River to the Great Lakes) • Steamboats were used for transportation on major rivers • Trains –the Tom Thumb is the first successful steam train in the US, it loses a race to a horse in 1830

  29. James K. Polk • Elected in 1844 • Favored adding California as a state and claiming all of the Oregon Territory • Slogan “Fifty-four forty or fight” • Treaty with GB in 1846 sets border at 49th parallel.

  30. Moving West • Manifest Destiny – a popular belief that God intended the United States to expand coast to coast. • Abundance of land was greatest attraction

  31. New Markets • Ranching, Farming • Fur Trade, Gold • Merchants followed the farmers • Levi Strauss, invents blue jeans for miners • Mormons • Move west for religious freedom in 1846

  32. Texas • 1821, Mexico gains independence from Spain • Settlers move to Texas territory b/c they are given land grants • Stephen Austin establishes a colony of Americans living in Northern Texas / Mexico and by 1835 there are 30,000 people in colony

  33. Settlers had to follow Mexican laws including: • No Slavery • 1835 Mexico strips Texas of its right to self-govern • 1836 – The Alamo: “Remember the Alamo” was rallying cry after the defeat

  34. Texas War For Indep. Cont. • Texan rebels capture Santa Anna and force Mexicans to sign a treaty recognizing the Republic of Texas in 1836 • Republic of Texas is its own country until its annexed by the USA in 1846 – becoming the 28th state – this leads to the Mexican War in 1848 • Mexican govt. did not recognize Republic of Texas independence

  35. Trails West • Santa Fe Trail – 780 mile trip to Southwest • Oregon Trail – 2000 mile trip to Pacific Northwest • Both trails started in Independence, Missouri

  36. Infrastructure • California, Oregon, Washington would rapidly become states • This will force the US to focus on developing infrastructure • Pony Express • Telegraph Lines • Railroads

  37. Oregon Territory • Boundary dispute between the US and Canada (GB) over the northern border. • “Fifty Four Forty or Fight” became a slogan for Americans who wanted to annex all of Oregon • Compromise occurred and the border between the US and Canada was set at the 49th Parallel

  38. California • Gold was discovered in 1849 • 80,000 people from around the world came to US after California Gold • 1849 California outlaws slavery and applies for statehood

  39. Mexican-American War • US annexes the Republic of Texas in 1845 • US wants Rio Grande River as border, Mexico does not agree

  40. Causes 1. US desire for more land 2. Texas Independence 3. Border dispute – Pres. Polk sends forces to Rio Grande

  41. Effects 1. Land acquired 2. Mexico reduced to half its original size 3. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – - Rio Grande border - ceded NM and CA - paid for Mexican Cession (CA, NV, NM, UT, AZ) • Gadsden Purchase, 1853 border of lower 48

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