UNGEI in UGANDA Presentation by Dr. Sheila Wamahiu, Chief, Education, UNICEF Uganda CO, at Asia-Pacific Meeting of UNGEI Global Advisory Committee,11-12 June 2008, Kathmandu, Nepal
The Country Context • Governance: multiparty democracy, decentralised structure (national vs. local governments) • Ethnic/cultural diversity and tensions • Security phase: • Phase 3 in pastoralist/nomadic Karamoja (northeast) • Phase 2 in North (conflict affected/post conflict transition) • Phase 1 Kampala and other areas
Education Policy & Financing • Advanced SWAp (also in Health and WATSAN) • Budget support • Budgetary ceilings set by MoF in consultation with Education Sector • Policies/Legislative frameworks relating to Education for All/Gender Equality • Constitution: Guarantees right to education • 1997 UPE: Policy Guidelines stipulates tuition free education, removes costs such as compulsory school uniform • Quota system for higher education/elective seats-all levels • 2007 USE: Phased implementation • 2008 Education Bill: makes education compulsory but elements incompatible with Human Rights principles
Girls’ Education: Issues • Overall reduction in gender gaps at primary enrolment; Widens at higher levels • Persisting disparities in hard-to-reach; conflict affected areas • Also in school leaving exams; SMT • Boys in areas of commercial labour-fishing villages, mining) • Similar issues as discussed in key note paper/discussants-in-school & out-of-school incl high leakage, gender-based violence, poor quality of teaching learning processes, inadequate/infrastructure
MoES Gender Task Force at helm Provides strategic guidance at the national level and facilitates implementation of the UNGEI vision. Members: • Ministry of Education and Sports (Chair) • FAWEU (Co-Chair) • UNICEF (Convener) • Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development • Kyambogo University (in charge of teacher training) • DES (Directorate of Education Standards) • NCDC (National Curriculum Development Centre) • MISR / Makerere University • UNITY / USAID • Netherlands’ Embassy • GEM • Straight Talk Foundation CCF • World Vision • Save the Children in Uganda
UNGEI: FIRST STEPS • Acceleration strategy guiding framework for partnership mobilisation (Gender Task Force, Teacher Education, MoES) • Pre-launch consultation– • Selection of Working group • Set national agenda & task: Gender parity (MDG)/Identification of key actors thru partnership mapping • Develop/consensus on national TORs for UNGEI • Consensus on gender sensitisation campaign & roll-out to lower levels • National launch Dec 2004 • Current Minister for Education & Sports (then Minister of State) • Chair: GoU (MoES Dept of Pre-Primary & Primary) & Co-chair: FAWEU • Convener: UNICEF Uganda
ROLL-OUT SINCE 2005 • Gender Parity Campaign with token contribution for community mobilisation by UNICEF • all districts + municipalities (over 70) • Ministerial guidance on use of contribution • Ministerial letter to district/community leaders • most disadvantaged sub-counties • building on existing activities • Focus on selected districts (sub-counties/IDP camps) for intensive action (e.g. USDC in West Nile; UNHCR in refugee settlements, USAID in project districts) • Broad-based partnerships incl. with PTCs, local media, creative artistes (concert for girls’ education), young people/children • GEM training focus on monitoring
TODAY • 13 district level UNGEI chapters in Teso region (East), Karamoja region (North-East), Acholi region (North) and the Western region. • 164 camp/community education committees (94% of them constituted in 2007) in parts of Teso region and Gulu and Amuru districts (Acholi region) • Planned roll-out in Western Uganda
WORKING TOGETHER FOR GENDER PARITY: ACTIONS • Advocacy materials: • Fact sheets: presenting evidence • Posters: Career models • Raising awareness: Gender Parity campaign in 2004 • Influencing Sector Education Working Group actions: “Go to School, Back to School, Stay in School campaign” in 2007-08 in Amuru District to focus on Girls Education • Developing tools for reducing gender gaps: • Commitment from prominent women • Children identifying of out-of-school children (GEM) • Inputs to the National Gender Policy (updated version published in 2007), Gender in Education Policy (draft by MoES) and Gender Responsive Pedagogy Handbook for Teachers (draft by MoES). • In 2007, Guidelines for Documentation of Best Practices in Girls' Education (documentation hopefully in 2008) and a draft Training Guide for Community UNGEI groups.
UNGEI IN GULU • Established July 2005 • Includes • District leaders (LC 5, Secretary for Education, Secretary for Women, ACAO, DEO/DIS, ESA Coordinator and DCO) • Gulu District Local Government incl Probation Officer (Police) • Young people (GEM Gulu District Chapter leadership) • IDP Camp Commanders • Education Agencies (Local, National and International) e.g. Emergency Action Uganda, SOS, Save the Children in Uganda, Gulu Development Agency, Concerned Parents Association, CARITAS, World Vision, GUSCO, ACCORD, NRC, War Child Holland, Action for Children in Conflict, Feed the Children Uganda, HURIFO, FAWE (Forum of African Women Educationalists), Acholi Education Initiative, Straight Talk, LAPEWA, WALA, TICA, • GuluCore PTC, Gulu School of Clinical Officers, Gulu University, Headteachers • UN Agencies: WFP, UNOCHA
ACTIONS & RESULTS IN GULU • Sensitisation of communities in 10 IDP camps of Koch-Goma, Awer, Pagak, Pabbo, Bungatira, Unyama, Palenga and Lakwana. • Education committees comprising camp leaders and other prominent camp members with 60% women in leadership/men as members. • “Safe School Contracts” Initiative of Camp Education Committees in partnership with GEM. Contract drawn up between community & teachers. Teachers undertake not to be involved in acts of sexual harassment, elopement with school girls. Signed contracts displayed in a prominent area ensures accountability. • “Safe Community Contracts” commits local leaders to promotion of right of girl child to education. Signed with GEM by local leaders • Draft Girls Education Ordinance to be tabled before District Council • Re-entry of OOS girls and child mothers (with babies) into school/transition into secondary. • Organisation of child mothers/rape victims/FAC into groups within school to combat stigmatisation • Greater involvement of boys and men.
SUCCESSES • Commitment by key ministries: MoES and Min. of Gender: emphasis on girls’ education and young people’s participation. • Large number of partners involved • Roll-out to the district and community levels • Child Friendly Schools widely implemented • GEM: peer support in schools • GEM covers currently 23 districts (approximately over 903 school based clubs) • 15 GEM district chapters • Estimated membership: 356 701 members (a coverage of 22% of the children in 31 % of the primary schools in 23 districts).
LESSONS LEARNT & WAY FORWARD • Limited external resources catalytic--better utilised at local/community level action than national level launches • District launches/strengthened mobilisation planned – rolling out continues. • Partnerships with private sector still under-explored • Tap commitment of creative artistes/ prominent personalities to give back to community esp. in support of girls ed/empowerment • Adaptation of broader UNGEI strategies to local contexts esp. in post-conflict situations key to success • Develop UNGEI resource package/community training guide • Data collection and data bank: need to document best practices • Translation of national policies into action; follow-up mechanisms • Reduction of gender disparities and promotion of girls’ education is everybody’s business! • Strengthened partnership in monitoring results • Encourage visible participation of men (in addition to women) role models
FURTHER INFORMATION • UNICEF ESARO 2007: Making UNGEI Work: Lessons from Four African Countries;Uganda: Ensuring that “All” Includes Everyone • UNICEF Uganda CO, Education Cluster: Sheila Wamahiu: firstname.lastname@example.org Laura Keihas: email@example.com