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Object Oriented Analysis & Design

Object Oriented Analysis & Design

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Object Oriented Analysis & Design

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  1. Object Oriented Analysis & Design Scrum

  2. Contents

  3. Scrum • Scrum is a software methodology, like RUP • It is an agile methodology • It can respond quickly to changes in the requirements • Many game companies are using Scrum to develop their games

  4. Remember the Waterfall Model? • Planning Phase • Final product is thought out • Product is designed • Requirements and design are documented • The schedule is created and planned • Estimates are made • Construction • The product is sent to various teams and built • Testing • The product is passed to QA for testing • Strict controls are placed on the project to ensure the final product is what was designed

  5. What’s Wrong with the Waterfall? • The strengths of waterfall include • Highly organized • Extremely logical • Weaknesses • Humans are involved • Requires all good ideas at the start • In reality, good ideas arise throughout the project • Waterfall documents all ideas • In reality documents are seldom read • When read, they are often misunderstood • We find that a rigid process results in mediocre products that are never better than the original idea

  6. Agile Development • Tries to reflect human reality • Tries to get working software quickly rather than concentrating on planning • Use cross functional teams which can make their own decisions • Uses rapid iteration to build the product in smaller pieces • Agile reminds people of how it was done in the start-up days when they just did it, before they got big and bureaucratic

  7. The Origin of Scrum • Is a short form of scrummage used in rugby • When there has been an infraction of the ball has gone out of play • The team regroups and gets ready to start playing again • In scrum, this regrouping is what the team does at the start of every day

  8. Scrum Overview • Scrum is an iterative approach to project development • It consists of a series of sprints, each of which is timeboxed between 2-4 weeks • If the work is not complete at the end of a sprint, the sprint is never extended • At the beginning of the sprint, the team selects items they will do in the sprint • Every morning, the team meets to discuss progress and adjust to meet their schedule • At the end of the sprint, the team reviews the sprint to discover what they did right and wrong

  9. Deemer, Benefield, Larmer, & Vodde

  10. Scrum Definitions • Product Backlog • This is a list of features that must be implemented • These features are prioritized so that the most important and lowest cost can be easily identified • Sprint Backlog • The list of items from the product backlog that the team has committed to build in this sprint • Sprint • The 2-4 week period in which the team works to build the items the have committed to build • Daily scrum meeting • Daily meeting to judge progress and adjust strategy

  11. Scrum Personnel • Product Owner • Responsible for maximizing return on investment by prioritizing list of items • Continually re-prioritizes list to get items of highest value to the business • Only one person is the product owner and he or she is responsible for the value of the resulting product

  12. Scrum Personnel • The Team • Builds what the product owner tells them to • Is cross-functional by having people with diverse skills necessary to build the product • Is self-organizing and has a high degree of autonomy • Commits to build the items in the sprint backlog • The team are the pigs and everyone else are chickens • A team consists of 7 plus or minus 2 people • A team is staffed for and devoted to the development of one particular product

  13. Pigs & Chickens

  14. Scrum Personnel • Scrum Master • Helps the personnel to learn and apply scrum • Protects the team from outside interference • Educates upper management on how scrum works

  15. Project Management in Scrum • There is no project manager • The product owner decides on the priorities • The scrum master protects the team from interference • The team • Organizes itself • Manages itself via the daily scrum meetings

  16. Starting Scrum • A scrum project is started by the Product Owner • He or she articulates the product vision • He or she then develops a list of features for the product • The features are a list of everything that will be built by the team • The features are then assigned • A priority indicating their importance • An estimate of their value to the project • An estimate of the cost to build them • The prioritized list of features is called the Product Backlog

  17. Sample Product Backlog

  18. The Product Backlog • The Product Backlog can contain • Features needed to play the game • Underlying infrastructure to make the game work • Game engine • Art work • Music & sound effects • Model loaders • Level loaders • The Product Backlog is continuously updated to reflect • Changing priorities • New features and ideas

  19. The Release Backlog • The Release Backlog is • A subset of the Product Backlog • The list of features required for the current release • Like the Product Backlog, the Release Backlog is • Continuously updated by the Product Owner • Features can be added or deleted • Features can be re-prioritized

  20. Sprint Planning • Each sprint is planned by a Sprint Planning Meeting • This meeting has 2 parts • Part 1 • The team meets with the Product Owner to understand what needs to be built next. • Part 2 • The team decides how many of the prioritized list of items identified in Part 1, they will commit to deliver • One of the major differences is that the team decides how much work can be done in a sprint, not the Product Owner

  21. Sprint Planning – Part 1 • The Team meets with the Product Owner • Reviews high-priority items the Product Owner wants implemented • Discuss the goals and context for these items so that the team understands the thinking on the Product Owner • Discusses the definition of “done” so that every knows what is expected at the end of the Sprint • At the end of part 1, the team understands what the Product Owner wants

  22. Sprint Planning – Part 2 • This part of the meeting focuses on how to implement the items discussed in part 1 • It estimates the amount of time each member of the team has to devote to the project over the next several weeks • Each of the items is examined in order of priority • The team decides how many of these items they can commit to deliver • Since the team decides how much they can do, the commitment actually means something • The Spring Planning meeting will last several hours, but no more than 8

  23. Multi-Skilled Workers • Scrum makes use of multi-skilled workers • A tester does not just do testing if there is no testing but there is other work to do • The workers go where the work is and do not sit idle waiting for a specific type of work • This keeps everyone busy and maximizes the productivity of the team

  24. Sprint Goals do not Change • Once the team has committed to the goals of the Sprint, there are no changes to the goals of the Sprint • The Product Owner might want to add new items to the list for a Sprint or to modify the existing list • The team is protected from these changes which might make their commitment impossible to meet • In the event that there is a major change in priorities, a Sprint can be terminated and a new Spring planned • This avoids having the team continue to implement items which are no longer needed for the project

  25. Daily Scrum • A short daily meeting • 15 minutes or less • At the same time every day • Every team member reports • What has been accomplished since the last meeting • What they want to accomplish before the next meeting • Any roadblocks in their way • Notes are taken • The Scrum Master is responsible for clearing roadblocks • If more discussion is needed, another meeting is scheduled

  26. Sprint Burndown Chart • The team must track how progress is going • This is done by tracking the amount of time left to accomplish each goal • This is tracked on a Sprint Burndown Chart • This allows the team to adjust its efforts to meet its commitments

  27. Sprint Burndown Chart

  28. Sprint Review • This is a conversation between the Product Owner and the Team to • Catch up on the state of the product • Catch up on the state of the team • Find out the thinking of the Product Owner • This includes a demo of what the team built in the Sprint • This is attended by everyone including management

  29. Sprint Retrospective • This meeting is held after the Sprint Review • It seeks to improve the process • It tries to identify • What worked • What could be improved • The team then looks for • Causes of inefficiency • Ways to improve the efficiency of the process