Chapter 11. The Civil War and Reconstruction February, 2014 Pg. 109
Reasonsforthe Civil War • Civil War: is a fightbetweendifferentgroups of people in thesame country. • Secede: to leave • Somereasonforthe civil war: • President Lincoln and otherNorthernswanted to endslavery, people in the South saidcotton depended onslavery. Theybelievedthatwithoutcottontheirway of living and culture wouldend. • Southernsbelievedthatthegovernment of the USA didn´thavetheright to tellthemhowtheyshouldlive.
TheSouthernStatesSecede • By March, 1861, sevenSouthernstateshadseceded. Thesesevenstatesformed a new nationscalledtheConfederateStates of America. • TheNorthernstatescalledthemselvestheUnion.
The Civil WarBegins • TherewereUnionfortsonConfederateland, and theSouthernstateswanted to takeovertheforts. Charleston, South Carolina, wanted to takeover Fort Sumter, whichwas in thecity´sharbor. Thesoldiers in thefortwerealmostout of food and water. President Lincoln sentthemsupplies. • The South had to decide, shouldtheConfederatestatesletthemleavethesupplies in orattackthefort. OnApril 12, 1861, cannonsfromthecity of Charleston firedonthefort. Thewarhadbegun.
The South has EarlySuccess and Problems • BoththeUnion and theConfederatestatesthoughtthewarwould be short. Eachthoughttheothersidewouldgive up afteroneortwodefeats, orlosses. Thewarlastedfouryears. • The South won more battles. OnereasonforthiswasthattheSoutherngenerals, such as Robert E. Lee and Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, wereverygoodgenerals.
Troops: group of soldiers • Someproblemsthe South hadduringthe Civil War: • Didn´thaveenoughmen to fight. • SomeConfederatetroopsmarchedbarefoot, becausetheycouldnotgetshoes. • Theycouldn´tgetsuppliesfromEuropebecausetheNorthernhad placed warshipsallalongthecoastline of the South. • Southernersalmoststarvedbecause of thetransportationproblems.
Transportation in the South • The South had more transportationproblemsthanthe North. Roads in the South werenot as good as roads in the North. • The South didnothave as manylakes and canalsthatcould be usedforshipping, and mostimportanttheydidnothave as goodrailroadsystem as the North.
TheEmancipationProclamation • In September 1862, theUnionArmydefeatedthe South at theBattle of Antietam in Maryland. TheUnion won, thiswasanimportantvictoryforthem. • OnJanuary 1, 1863, thePresidentsignedtheEmancipationProclamation. ThiswasanorderthatpromisedthatNorthernarmieswould free slaves in theConfederatestates. • TheProclamationalsoorderedthe use of African American troops in theUnionArmy.
A War-WearyLand • OnJuly 1, 1863, a three-daybattlebegan at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Bytheend of thebattle, General Lee´sConfederateArmywasveryweak. • Thefightingcontinuedfortwo more years. ItwasuntilApril 9, 1865, that General Lee surrendered to General Grant. The Civil Warwasfinallyover.
AftertheWar • The Civil Warkeptthe South fromleavingtheUnitedStates. Italsoputanend to slavery, butthousands of Americanshadbeenkilled and wounded. Cities and townswereburned to theground and factories and farmsweredestroyed. • President Lincoln saidthenationwaslike a woundedsoldier. Itswas time “to bind up thenation´swounds”. Bind up means to close.
A Troubled Time • Theyearsbetween 1865 ad 1877 are calledReconstruction. Duringthis time thenationtried to solvetheproblemscreatedbythe Civil War. • President Abraham Licncolndidnotlive to seeReconstruction. Onlyfivedaysafterthewarwasover, Abraham Lincoln wasshot and killed. • TheCongresspassed a lawthatpeoplecouldnot vote orgoverniftheyhadbeenpart of theConfederategovernment.
Free butnotEqual • ThereweremanyproblemsforAfricanAmericansfollowingthewar. Southernersmadelawscalled Black Codes. Theirpurposewas to keepAfricanAmericansfromhavingthesamefreedoms as otherpeople. • AfricanAmericanswerepoor, fewhadmoney to buyland. Many of themwent to workforotherpeople. ManyAfricanAmericansrentedlandfromfarmers. Theywerecalledsharecroppersbecausetheypaidtheirrentwith a share of theircrops.