Passive voice does NOT mean “past tense.” • There are 2 voices of verbs in Latin: • Active voice • Passive voice
Ablative of Agent • The words “a” and “ab” can mean “by” in Latin. • They are used with passive voice verbs to tell “by whom” something is done.
Ablative of Agent • The noun (agent) will be in the ablative case. • Ablative endings: • -a, -o (singular) • -is (plural).
Aqua a puellis portatur. ABLATIVE OF AGENT
In Latin, there are special endings to show that the verbs are in the passive voice!
portor I am (being) carried… portaris you are (being) carried… portatur portamur portamini portantur portare--passive voice
-bar I was being verbed -baris you were being verbed -batur he/she/it was being verbed -bamur we were being verbed -bamini Y’all were being verbed -bantur They were being verbed Imperfect Tense---passive voice
-bor I will be verbed -beris you will be verbed -bitur he/she/it will be verbed -bimur we will be verbed -bimini y’all will be verbed -buntur they will be verbed Future Tense---passive voice 1st/2nd conjugation
-ar I will be verbed -eris you will be verbed -etur he/she/it will be verbed -emur we will be verbed -emini y’all will be verbed -entur they will be verbed Future Tense---passive voice 3rd/4th conjugation
Perfect Participles • In Latin, the PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE is the 4th PRINCIPAL PART of the verb. It generally ends in –tus or –sus: • Porto, portare, portavi, PORTATUS • PORTATUS: “Having been carried” or just “carried” • Mitto, mittere, misi, MISSUS • MISSUS: “sent” or “having been sent” • These words decline in 1st/2nd declensions just like any other –us, -a, -um adjective. Only the –us ending is listed in your vocabulary.
Forming perfect passive tenses • Now that you’ve learned participles, it’s time to put them to good use! • The perfect passive participle (part 4 of the verb’s principal parts) is used to make PASSIVE VOICE of the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect tenses. • Remember that the participle is an adjective, so we’re going to have to tweak its ending a little bit as we conjugate from singular to plural and from gender to gender. • Perfect passive tenses are unique in that they use 2 words: a participle and a form of sum.
Perfect Passive Tense • Take the perfect passive participle of a verb. • Add the present tense of “sum” as a helping verb. Yes, you’re using the PRESENT tense of sum to form a PAST tense verb. Be careful not to translate “sum” as present tense when it’s partnered up with a participle. You’ll see why on the next page….
duco, ducere, duxi, ductus---lead Singular Plural 1st ductus ducti 2nd ductus ducti 3rd ductus ducti sum est es sumus sunt estis
Pluperfect Passive: The Same Pattern! Just use “eram” as your helping verb. amo, amare, amavi, amatus: love
duco, ducere, duxi, ductus---lead Singular Plural 1st ductus ducti 2nd ductus ducti 3rd ductus ducti eram erat eras eramus erant eratis
Future Perfect Passive: The Same Pattern AGAIN! Just use “ero” as your helping verb (future of sum) amo, amare, amavi, amatus: love
duco, ducere, duxi, ductus---lead Singular Plural 1st ductus ducti 2nd ductus ducti 3rd ductus ducti ero erit eris erimus erunt eritis
Matching Practice(watch out for genders and plurals!) • missa est a. He will be sent • missa erunt b. it will have been sent • 3. missum est c. They had been sent • mittetur d. She has been sent • missae sunt e. They were being sent • mittebantur f. They will have been sent • missus est g. They are sent • mittuntur h. They have been sent • missi erant i. It was sent • missum erit j. He has been sent
Practice Sentences • Litterae in otio scribuntur. • Nautae ad provincias mittentur. • Viri in agris a puellis videbantur. • Pauci libri lecti erant. • Puella a puero amata est.