Bike Lanes in the Door Zone Missoula Bike and Pedestrian Advisory Board November 18, 2010
Relevant BPAB Duties per MMC 5.60.070 • #5 – Make recommendations to the city regarding design standards for all types of bicycle and pedestrian facilities; • #8 – Consult and advise government agencies in order to promote bicycling and pedestrian activity as viable forms of urban transportation and recreation and reducing dependence on private automobiles as a primary mode of transportation;
Is There a Problem? • Door Zone Crashes • Reported dooring incidents comprise 5% to 15% of reported bicycle crashes • Is less than 6 feet enough for bicyclist safety? • Bicyclist comfort – encourage more bicyclists • City liability due to facility design • Physical constraints of existing right of way
Recognition of Problem • Montana Drivers License Manual 2010-2012 Section 5, pg 50 • “When approaching parked vehicles, many bicyclists will ride far enough away from a vehicle to avoid being “doored.” This term describes a situation when an individual within a parked vehicle suddenly opens their car door without checking for any bicyclists approaching from behind. Frequently, cities place bike lanes next to parking lanes, but bicyclists may be hesitant to use the designated lane due to the danger of being “doored.””
Recognition of Problem • MUTCD 2009 Edition Section 9C.07 Shared Lane Marking • Option: • The Shared Lane Marking shown in Figure 9C-9 may be used to: • A. Assist bicyclists with lateral positioning in a shared lane with on-street parallel parking in order to reduce the chance of a bicyclist’s impacting the open door of a parked vehicle, • B. Assist bicyclists with lateral positioning in lanes that are too narrow for a motor vehicle and a bicycle to travel side by side within the same traffic lane,
Recognition and Treatment of the Problem • AASHTO 1999 Bike Book – Chapter 1 Planning • Many factors should be considered in determining the appropriate bicycle facility type, location and priority for implementation. • Motor Vehicle Parking—The turnover and density of on-street parking can affect bicyclist safety (e.g., opening car doors and cars leaving parallel parking spaces).
Recognition and Treatment of the Problem • AASHTO 1999 Bike Book – Chapter 1 Planning • On-Street Parking • On-street parking increases the potential for conflicts between motor vehicles and bicyclists. The most common bicycle riding location on urban roadways is in the area between parked cars and moving motor vehicles. Here, bicyclists are subjected to opening car doors, vehicles exiting parking spaces, extended mirrors that narrow the travel space, and obscured views of intersecting traffic. Therefore, 3.6 m (12 feet) of combined bicycle travel and parking width should be the minimum considered for this type of shared use.
Recognition and Treatment of the Problem • AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 • Exhibit 2.3 General considerations for Different Bikeway Types • Bike Lanes • Where motor vehicles are allowed to park adjacent to bike lane, ensure width of bike lane sufficient to reduce probability of conflicts due to opening vehicle doors and other hazards. Analyze intersections to reduce bicyclist/motor vehicle conflicts. Sometimes bike lanes are left "undesignated" (i.e. bicycle symbol and signs are not used) in urban areas as an interim measure.
AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 • Exhibit 2.3 General considerations for Different Bikeway Types • Shared Lanes (shared lane markings) • Space constrained roads with narrow travel lanes, or road segments upon which bike lanes are not selected due to space constraints or other limitations • Useful where there is high turnover in on-street parking to prevent crashes with open car doors. • Where motor vehicles allowed to park along shared lanes, ensure marking placement reduces potential conflicts with opening car doors.
AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 • Chapter 3 – Bicycle Operation & Safety • 3.4.2 Overall Findings - Urban vs Rural • “…Hitting an open car door is estimated to represent between 3% and 6% of urban crashes; this percentage can be higher in cities with a high amount of on-street parking, lower in suburban areas with no on-street parking. (6)(7)(8) Overtaking or being struck from behind represents a small portion of crashes in urban areas, but a larger portion of crashes on rural roads. Overtaking crashes in urban areas often occur at night and are usually associated with poor lighting conditions.”
AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 • Chapter 3 – Bicycle Operation & Safety • 3.4.3 Contributing causes of bicyclist-motor vehicle creashes and recommended countermeasures – Motorist striking bicyclist with vehicle door (“dooring”) • “…Remedies include educating motorists (training them to look for bicyclists before opening their door) and bicyclists (training them to not ride too close to parked cars and to be on the lookout for drivers opening their door, although the latter has become more difficult due to tinted windows and taller vehicle design). Design treatments can help to reduce the likelihood of this type of crash.”
AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 • Chapter 3 – Bicycle Operation & Safety • 3.4.3 Contributing causes of bicyclist-motor vehicle crashes and recommended countermeasures – Bicyclists Struck from Behind • “While this crash type represents a small portion of urban crashes, it represents a significant portion of rural crashes, especially fatalities….”
AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 • Chapter 4 – Design of On-Road Facilities • 4.6.4 Bicycle Lane Widths • “Bike lane widths should be determined by context and anticipated use…. • “As discussed in the previous chapter, a bicyclist’s preferred operating width is 5 feet (1.5m). Wider bicycle lanes may be desireable under the following conditions: • Adjacent to a narrow parking lane (7 feet [2.1m]) with high turnover (such as those servicing restaurants, shops, or entertainment venues), a wider bicycle lane (6-7 feet or 2.1m) provides more operating space for bicyclists to ride out of the area of opening vehicle doors.
AASHTO DRAFT Bike Book 2010 • Chapter 4 – Design of On-Road Facilities • 4.6.5 Bicycle Lanes and On-Street Parking • When on-street parking is permitted, the bicycle lane should be placed between the parking lane and the travel lane (see Exhibit 4.13). The recommended bicycle lane width in these locations is 6 feet (1.8m) and the minimum bicycle lane width is 5 feet (1.5m). Care should be taken when providing wider bike lanes in areas where parking is scarce or otherwise in demand, as wider bicycle lanes may result in more double parking.
Automobile Comfort Distance • 27 responses (multiple responses from individuals) • Overall Average 74” – 6’ 2” • Minimum 60” – 5’ 0” • Maximum 88” – 7’ 4” • Out of range maximum 140” – 11’ 8” • Median 76” – 6’ 4”
Examples • Bike Lanes and Dooring.wmv • League of American Cyclists Training Session • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TQ7aID1jHs • Scaled bike lane comparisons
Other Documents: • Bicycling and On-Street Parallel Parking • Wayne Pein – Jan 2003 • Examples follow:
Dooring Fatality Cambridge, MA. Bicycling and On-Street Parallel Parking
Selected Door Widths Bicycling and On-Street Parallel Parking
Vehicle Widths • Federal Maximum for commercial: • 102.36 inches 8 feet 6.36 inches • Average sizes for vehicles in various segments 2007: • Sedan Compact 68.8” – 5’ 8.8” • Sedan Midsize 71.4” – 5’ 11.4” • Sedan Large 75.1” – 6’ 3.1” • SUV Compact 70.9” – 5’ 10.9” • SUV Midsize 73.8” – 6’ 1.8” • SUV Large 78.2” – 6’ 6.2” • Source: Edmunds.com
Existing Laws and Standards • Uniform Vehicle Code • CHAPTER 11 - Uniform Vehicle Code: Rules of the Road - Pt. 3 • Montana Code Annotated • Missoula Municipal Code • Subdivision Code: Article 3 Section 11, page 29 dated July 26, 1999. Requires bike lane on collector streets or greater. Specifies 5 feet to gutter edge or 12 feet when combined with parking lane. (Parallel?) Article three also specifies that parking is required on collector streets or greater. Specifies 8 feet as standard width. • MUTCD 2009 Edition • AASHTO 1999 Bike Book • AASHTO 2010 DRAFT Bike Guide • Administrative Rule 415
What can we influence? • Missoula Municipal Code • Administrative Rule 415
My Additional Thoughts • 5’ Bike lanes next to parked cars: • Provide the illusion of safety • Acclimate cyclists to riding too close to parked cars • How do you train passengers exiting on the bike lane side of parked cars?