Review from yesterday Explain the differences between Rousseau and Hobbes concerning: • Human Nature • Style of Government • Enforcement of morals/law • Nature
Goal: Understand Arcadia/Utopia • What are the primary differences between Arcadia and Utopia and how are they understood by Voltaire in Candide?
Sir Thomas More/Sir Philip Sidney • Both authors were English Renaissance writers • Bother were profoundly affected by the re-emergence of Classical Greek and Roman texts
The Ideals of Utopia - More • Utopia is s a name for an ideal community or society possessing a perfect (just) social, political, and legal system. • The word was invented by Sir Thomas More for his 1516 book Utopia, describing a fictional island in the Atlantic Ocean. • The term has been used to describe both intentional communities that attempted to create an ideal society, and fictional societies portrayed in literature. It has spawned other concepts, most prominently dystopia.
The Ideals of Arcadia - Sidney • Arcadia (Greek: Ἀρκαδία) refers to a vision of pastoralism and harmony with nature. The term is derived from the Greek state of the same name which dates to antiquity; the province's mountainous topography and sparse population of pastoralists later caused the word Arcadia to develop into a poetic byword for an idyllic vision of unspoiled wilderness. • Arcadia is associated with bountiful natural splendor, harmony, and is often inhabited by Shepards. The concept also figures in Renaissance myth.
Utopia/Arcadia - Sidney • However, commonly thought of as being in line with Utopian ideals, Arcadia differs from that tradition in that it is more often specifically regarded as unattainable. • Furthermore, it is seen as a lost, Eden-like form of life, contrasting to the progressive nature of Utopian desires.
Generalize: Voltaire on Arcadia and Utopia • What are the primary differences between Arcadia and Utopia and how are they understood by Voltaire in Candide? • How do Candide and Cacambo view El Dorado when they stumble upon it? • What do you think is Candide's ideal civilization or place? And, is it consistent with the ideals of Europe at the time?