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A brief history of nuclear energy technologies

A brief history of nuclear energy technologies

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A brief history of nuclear energy technologies

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  1. A briefhistoryofnuclearenergytechnologies Barbara Rauter Daniela Wachter

  2. CONTENT OF OUR WORK • Definitionsandhistoryoffissionandfusion • Importantcomponentsof a nuclearfissionreactor • Overview on nuclearfissionreactors • Nuclearfusionreactors • Accidentsatnuclear power plants

  3. IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF A NUCLEAR FISSION REACTOR • fuel • moderator • controlrods • coolant • pressurevesselorpressuretubes • steamgenerator • containment Schemeof a nuclearfissionreactor(adapted from Lancaster University, 2011)

  4. OVERVIEW ON NUCLEAR FISSION REACTORS

  5. OVERVIEW ON NUCLEAR FISSION REACTORS Nuclearreactortypes in useworldwide (asof 1 January, 2003 (adapted from OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 2005: 17)

  6. CLASSIFICATION BY GENERATIONS The evolution of nuclear power (Böck, 2009b)

  7. ACCIDENTS AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS • Besides problems such as • mining of radioactive material (uranium ore) • production of radioactive waste, which • should be stored safely for thousands of years • is prone to proliferation • Accidents result in the most severe consequences for people and the environment • Only advantage of some accidents: Triggered technical/safety improvements of succeeding reactor models

  8. INES SCALE • INES = International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale • Tool to rate the safety significance of civil (non-military) nuclear and radiological events • Applies to any event associated with transport, storage and use of radioactive substances: • operations at nuclear facilities • industrial and medical use of radiation sources • loss or theft of radioactive material

  9. INES SCALE (2) INES Scale (IAEA, 2008: 1)

  10. INES SCALE (3) • Three areas of impacts are considered: • Impacts on people and the environment • Effects on radiological barriers and control inside an installation • Impairment of safety measures (Defence-in-Depth) • Examples: • Chernobyl: Level 7 in thecategory “peopleandtheenvironment” • Three Mile Island: Level 5 rating in thearea “radiologicalbarriersandcontrol” • Fukushima: Successivelyupgrading: • First provisionalratedat Level 4 bytheJapaneseNuclearSafety Authority “NISA” • Laterupgradedto Level 5 • On April 12, 2011 NISA gradedtheincidentsuptothehighestlevel, 7

  11. AND NOW…. … THE VIDEO