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CHAPTER 11

CHAPTER 11. SEXUALITY. Chapter Overview. Practical Issues Sexual Dysfunctions Contraception Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexual Victimization. Sexuality. Men and Women Changing Views of Sexuality Sexual Communication Initiating and Refusing Sex. Sexual Responsiveness

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CHAPTER 11

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  1. CHAPTER 11 SEXUALITY

  2. Chapter Overview • Practical Issues • Sexual Dysfunctions • Contraception • Sexually Transmitted Diseases • Sexual Victimization Sexuality • Men and Women • Changing Views of Sexuality • Sexual Communication • Initiating and Refusing Sex • Sexual Responsiveness • The Sexual Response Cycle • Individual Differences • Love and Sex

  3. Chapter Summary Men and Women • Changing Views of Sexuality • Sexual Communication • Initiating and Refusing Sex

  4. Chapter Summarycont’d Sexual Responsiveness • The Sexual Response Cycle • Individual Differences • Love and Sex

  5. Chapter Summarycont’d Practical Issues • Sexual Dysfunctions • Contraception • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) • Sexual Victimization

  6. Men and Women Changing Views of Sexuality Older stereotypes related to sexuality are that: • Men possess a stronger sex drive than women. • Men enjoy sex more than women. • Men’s sexual attitudes are more permissive. • Men are more sexually assertive; the extreme form is rape. • Women prefer sex in a committed relationship.

  7. Men and Womencont’d Changing Views of Sexuality • Such gender stereotypes about sexuality are changing. • Few people are completely masculine or feminine. Some people are androgynous--a combination of desirable masculine and feminine characteristics in one person.

  8. Men and Womencont’d Changing Views of Sexuality Newer views suggest that: • …sex is not something a man does to a woman. • Women experience the full range of sexual attitudes and behaviors…. • Sexual behaviors and attitudes vary with moods, time, place, and partners. • Part of the pleasure of sex comes from our partner’s response. • If one partner is critical, unresponsive, or passive, the emotional vitality of sexuality is diminished.

  9. Men and Womencont’d Sexual Communication • Most people are reluctant to talk about sex. • Sexual communication should be two-way. • Communication is easier when partners trust and demonstrate mutual empathy.

  10. Men and Womencont’d Sexual Communication Patterns of destructive sexual communication that should be avoided: • Criticism: attacking a partner’s skill or character (“You’re selfish; why can’t we have sex the way I want to?”). • Contempt: using insults to denigrate a partner’s sexuality (“You have the smallest breasts I have ever seen; I wish you were bigger”).

  11. Men and Womencont’d Sexual Communication Patterns of destructive sexual communication that should be avoided: • Defensiveness: using excuses or refusal to take responsibility for our sexuality (“But I was drunk; I didn’t know what I was doing”). • Withdrawal: ignoring a partner by watching TV or being emotionally unavailable (“Not tonight, Dear; I have a headache”). Alcohol dampens inhibitions. Under its influence we may do things that we would not otherwise do, suchas have sex with someone we barely know.

  12. Men and Womencont’d Initiating and Refusing Sex • Men have traditionally taken the sexual initiative. • BUT both men and women (hetero- or homosexual) who are expressive feel comfortable initiating or refusing. • The more couples initiate and refuse sex on an equal basis, the more satisfied they are with their sex lives. • It is wise to ask our partners about their sexual history and possible exposure to sexually transmitted diseases.

  13. Men and Womencont’d Sex with strangers (or even friends) can be dangerous! Advertisement for prostitutes in Nevada, where prostitution is legal

  14. Sexual Responsiveness The Stages of the Sexual Response Cycle: • Transition: a gradual shift from a nonsexual to a sexual state. • Excitement:sex arousal that causes increased muscle tension, engorgement of the genitals, and increased heart rate. • Plateau: a peak in arousal that occurs just before orgasm when sexual arousal becomes more pronounced.

  15. Sexual Responsiveness cont’d • The Stages of the Sexual Response Cycle: • Orgasm: the climax of sexual excitement accompanied by tension release. • Resolution: the body returns to its normal state. • Refractory period: (in men) a period when added stimulation does not result in sex arousal or orgasm.

  16. Sexual Responsiveness cont’d Individual Differences Men and Women • …the male refractory period. • Men’s brains respond more strongly to arousing materials. • Women become distracted by their appearance…. • Age differences: • Adolescent male sexuality: body-centered; becomes person-centered with age. • Adolescent female sexuality: person-centered; becomes body-centered with age. • Women have the capacity for multiple orgasms–two or more sexual climaxes within a short period of time.

  17. Sexual Responsiveness cont’d Individual Differences Sexual Orientation A component of sexuality that is characterized by enduring emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction to a particular gender. • Gay men and women (lesbians) are homosexual and prefer partners of the same-sex. • Heterosexuals prefer partners of theopposite-sex. • Bisexual individuals engage in sex with partners of either sex. • The sex arousal cycle (e.g. transition, excitement, plateau, etc.) is the same, regardless of sexual orientation.

  18. Sexual Responsiveness cont’d Individual Differences Sexual Orientation • …gay individuals are as well-adjusted as heterosexuals, especially when the individual accepts his or her sexual orientation. • Gays whose families support and accept them are also better adjusted than gays whose families do not.

  19. Sexual Responsiveness cont’d Individual Differences Sexual Orientation Some individuals do not accept sexual orientations other than heterosexuality: • Homophobia: holding negative attitudes toward homosexuals. • Sexual prejudice: A more general term meaning negative attitudes toward alternate sexual orientations (e.g. homosexuality, bisexuality, cross-dressing, etc.).

  20. Sexual Responsiveness cont’d Love and Sex • …there is nothing inherently wrong about sex without love, but many people feel uncomfortable when there is no personal relationship…. • Love usually enriches sex. There are several types of love: • Romantic love: intimacy or closeness and passion for another person. • Companionate love: a loving but practical relationship based primarily on emotional closeness and commitment. • Consummate love: a complete and balanced love characterized by emotional closeness, sexual intimacy, and commitment between partners.

  21. Practical Issues Sexual Dysfunctions Persistent problems that prevent an individual from engaging in or enjoying sexual intercourse. • In men: • Erectile inhibition (“impotency”): insufficient vasocongestion such that an erection cannot be established or maintained. • Premature ejaculation: early orgasm in a man. • In women: • Female orgasmic disorder: absence of orgasms. • Inhibited vaginal lubrication: insufficient vasocongestion and lubrication of the vagina.

  22. Practical Issues cont’d Contraception • …has become more important today because of HIV! • By 12th grade, 65% of our high school students are sexually experienced. • The U.S. leads all industrialized countries in teen pregnancy rate, but this is changing. Various methods have advantages and disadvantages: For example: • Birth-control pills: Highly-effective, but are expensive and need to be taken everyday. • Condoms: Very effective, protect from STDs, but interrupts sexual activity. (See Table 11-1, p. 299). The responsibility for contraception usually falls on the woman in heterosexual relationships; women are generally not happy with this circumstance.

  23. Practical Issues cont’d Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Diseases transmitted primarily through sexual interaction. • Rates are highest among high school/college-aged students. • There are many such diseases; HIV/AIDS the most difficult to treat as well as the deadliest.

  24. Practical Issues cont’d Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) • HIV/AIDS can be transmitted by other means (e.g., needle-sharing). • Gay men are not the main carriers of HIV; the heterosexual population accounts for 70% of all HIV/AIDS cases. • Prevention of STDs by various means (e.g., using a latex condom) is better and safer than after-the-fact treatment.

  25. Practical Issues cont’d Sexual Victimization: Being forced to comply with sexual acts under duress or force. Sexual Abuse of Children: • 90,000 children are victimized per year; this number may actually be higher. • …most likely to involve prepubescent children between 9 and 12 years of age. • Abusers are often family members or friends; were also abused.

  26. Practical Issues cont’d Sexual Victimization Sexual Abuse of Children • Immediate Effects: • anxiety • anger • eating/sleeping problems • guilt • preoccupation with sex • rashes • vomiting • In Adulthood: • sexual dysfunctions • sexual compulsions • distrust • anxiety • depression • …a likelihood of abusing.

  27. Practical Issues cont’d • Sexual Victimization • Child Pornography: • A visual depiction of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct, especially lacking serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. • Children depicted: girls between 6 and 12 • Consumers: White, unmarried males over 25. • Consequences for children: physical trauma, depression, withdrawal, mental disorders.

  28. Practical Issues cont’d Sexual Victimization Rape: Sexual intercourse under conditions of actual or threatened force that overcome the victim’s resistance. • Date Rape: coercive sexual activity that occurs during a date. • Victims are usually women, many under the age of 18 years at the time of the rape.

  29. Practical Issues cont’d • Sexual Victimization • Rape • Few rapes are reported to the police. • Most rapes are committed by someone known to the victim. • Victims develop rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (RR-PTSD), including headaches, nausea, anxiety, fear. • Support groups, psychotherapy, and improvements in the justice system have helped recent victims begin to heal.

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