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Unit 4 Revolutions

Unit 4 Revolutions

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Unit 4 Revolutions

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  1. Unit 4 Revolutions American Revolution

  2. Middle 1700’s • Drains on government treasury • French and Indian War—1756-1763 • Seven Years War—1756-1763 • 13 colonies existed for the benefit of the Mother Country—Britain • England/Britain provided protection for the colonies • Mercantilism • *(England had been through it’s own Revolution in the 1600’s—Puritan Revolution/English Civil War 1640’s & 1650’s and the Glorious Revolution 1688-1689—confirmed Parliament, rule by written law, and wrote the English Bill of Rights)

  3. British policies in the West • British policies undermined the Amerindian economy provoking Indian raids in Pennsylvania and Virginia • The raids were suppressed within a year • Fear of more violence force Britain to: • Proclamation of 1763—placed limits on westward expansion • Quebec Act of 1774—slowed settlement east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River

  4. American Revolution 1775-1800 • Frontiers and Taxes • British government faced two problems in North American after 1763 • The danger of war with the Indians as Colonists pushed west of the Appalachians and a rivalry with France • The need to raise taxes from the Colonists to help pay for the increasing cost of war—both administration and defense • British attempt to tax or prevent westward expansion provoked the Colonists to protest

  5. British Attempts to Raise Revenue • British tried to raise money through taxes and commercial regulation • Sugar Act • Stamp Act—tax on written documents, paper, cards, deeds, wills • Colonists protested and Parliament repealed the tax • Townshend Act—tax on all imports and exports, glass, metal, etc. • Tea Act—Colonists protested violently, Boston Tea Party, monopoly on tea for British East India Co. • Boston Massacre—5 American civilians killed • Intolerable Acts—series of acts, closed the port of Boston, required Colonists to house British soldiers, etc.—refusal would get one sent to England for trial

  6. British Advantages • Numbers—more soldiers • Manufactured goods • Weapons, ammo, clothing • More money—large treasury • Experienced, well-trained army

  7. Colonial Advantages • Fighting at Home—knew the lay of the land • Fighting for a cause—motivated & determined • Independence • Protecting homes and families • Aided by the French • Strong leaders—George Washington, had previously fought with British

  8. Course of Revolution 1775-1783 • Colonial governing bodies established a Continental Congress that printed currency and organized an army • Ideological rhetoric for support • Thousands of street-corner speakers • Thomas Paine—Common Sense • Declaration of Independence

  9. Course of Revolution 1775-1783 cont’d. • British forces were sent to colonies • British forces won most battles, but were unable to control countryside • British forces also unable to achieve a political compromise to the solution of the colonial problems • Amerindians served both sides—British and Colonies • Mohawk leader fled to Canada when war was over

  10. Course of Revolution 1775-1783 cont’d. • France entered the war in 1778 • Assisted American forces including Naval Warfare that helped General Washington defeat General Cornwallis • Treaty of Paris in 1783 ended the war granting unconditional independence to the colonies

  11. Prelude to Revolutions • Rivalry among European powers intensified in the 1600 and 1700’s—growing competition • Piracy was growing on the seas • Dutch attacked Spanish and Portuguese ships • British placed the Dutch in check • British defeated the French in the Seven Years’ War 1756-1763 taking over French colonial possessions in the Americas and India • Competition and war led to unprecedented costs • European governments were being forced to seek new sources of revenue while at the same time, the Enlightenment was inspiring people to question the government

  12. Enlightenment • Enlightened thinkers sought to apply methods of the Scientific Revolution to the study of Human Society—social studies

  13. Enlightened Thinkers • John Locke • Argued governments were created to protect people • Emphasized importance of individual rights • Jean Jacques Rousseau • Argued the will of the people was sacred • Voltaire • Argued monarchs could be agents of change—not a radical or revolutionary per se

  14. Enlightened Thinkers cont’d. • Some nobility patronized enlightened thinkers • Catherine the Great (Russia) & Frederick the Great (Prussia) used Enlightened ideas to reform bureaucracies, legal systems, tax systems, & economies BUT, suppressed ideas that promoted republicanism or attacked religion

  15. Enlightened Communication • Enlightened intellectuals communicated with political leaders • Women were instrumental through dissemination, purchase and discussion of writings, and making homes a salon for gathering of the minds • Enlightened ideas became popular with the growing Middle Class in Europe and the Western Hemisphere • Many saw the Americas as a new, uncorrupted place where the ideas would have a chance • Benjamin Franklin • Came to symbolize natural genius and vast potential of the America • His success in business, scientific and intellectual accomplishments, and political career offered proof that in a free society without chains such as America, that genius could thrive

  16. Folk Culture and Popular Protest • Most Westerners did not share Enlightened ideas • Most common people were remaining loyal to pre-industrial tradition • As monarchs tried to change tradition with increases in authority and power—such as through tax collection—common people began to protest • Protests were aimed to restore custom and tradition, not bring about revolution • When combined with conflicts within the Elite, potential for revolution grew