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The role of Nutrition in addressing NHPA

The role of Nutrition in addressing NHPA

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The role of Nutrition in addressing NHPA

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  1. The role of Nutrition in addressing NHPA

  2. NHPA • The NHPA influenced by nutritional factors include: • CVD • Obesity • Colorectal cancer • Osteoporosis • Diabetes

  3. Cardiovascular disease Subtitle Goes Here.

  4. Disease of the blood vessels • The most common cause of CVD is the hardening of the arteries called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis occurs when the inner walls of the arteries become narrow due to the build up of plague.

  5. Protective factors • Protective nutrients include Omega-3 fatty acids ( found in oily fish), Omega-6 fatty acids ( found in vegetable oil)and soy protein help to lower LDL cholesterol • vitamin E- helps reduce blood cholesterol • folate- lowers blood amino acids homocysteine which is linked to CVD , antioxidants- helps reduce fatty deposits in the blood vessels • soluble fibre lowers blood cholesterol by binding to bile acids (which are made from cholesterol) from the body. • Phytoestrogens- protect CVDCVD

  6. Nutritional Risk factors • Consuming saturated and transfatty acids increases LDL (low density lipoproteins) cholesterol levels in the blood and blood pressure • High sodium and low potassium diet is risk factor for hypertension • Diet low in dietary fibre • What lifestyle risk factors contribute to CVD

  7. Colorectal cancer

  8. Colorectal cancer • Cancers affecting either the colon or rectum are called colorectal cancer. P • The colon and rectum are parts of the body’s digestive system, which remove nutrients from food and stores waste until it passes out of the body.

  9. Colorectal cancer • Most cases of colorectal cancer begin as non-cancerous polyps _ grape-like growths on the lining of the colon and rectum. These polyps can become cancerous but can be removed before this happens. • 75% of deaths from colorectal cancers can be prevented by healthy diet and exercise • 2003- 9000 Australian • diagnosed, causing • 4500 deaths

  10. Colorectal cancer risk nutritional factors • Risk nutrients include a high saturated fat intake and obesity increase risk of colorectal cancer • Dietary fats should contribute 20-30% of daily energy intake • Some evidence that diet high in burnt meat, red or processed meat may increase risk of colorectal cancer • Recommended serve of red meat 90g a day • Low dietary fibre intake

  11. Colorectal cancer protective nutritional factors • high fibre diet- it absorbs water and softens and bulks u faeces- preventing constipation and therefore preventing potential cancer causing agents from sitting in the bowel for long periods • A diet high in fruit and vegetables-which is high in antioxidants, Vitamin E, Vitamin C and folate.

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  13. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus • Is a metabolic disease in which high blood glucose levels result from defective insulin secretion, insulin action or both • Type 1- not diet relate or preventable • Type 2-diet related, body becomes insulin resistant, action may be blocked due excess fat cells around insulin receptor sites, body tries to compensate by producing more insulin which fluctuates blood glucose levels, eventually unable to compensate and resulting in consistently high blood sugars • Gestational (3-8% of pregnancy)also increase chance of acquiring type 2 diabetes in later life

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus • Increasing in prevalence- preventable disease • 69% of diabetics over age of 15 are either obese or overweight • Increase weight around chest and stomach increase risk of diabetes • Long term effects- heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness and low limb amputation

  15. Risk nutritional factors • High GI foods increase risk of type 2 diabetes as they increase blood glucose rapidly • Saturated fats increase risk of obesity a precursor to type 2 diabetes • Alcohol consumption, as alcohol is high in kilojoules, alcohol inhibits liver ability to release glucose into the blood stream causing hypoglycaemia

  16. Risk factors for obesity • A high intake of diet high in fat and/or high GI foods • High GI can cause higher insulin levels which can lead to insulin resistance potentially leading to type 2 diabetes mellitus • Overconsumption • Low fibre diet

  17. Protective factors • Consuming low GI foods- slow release energy also higher nutritional foods • High fibre diet- feel full for longer • Consuming low fat diet- less fat stored

  18. What health issues are associated with obesity • Osteoarthritis • Sleep apnoea • High cholesterol • High blood pressure • Type 2 diabetes mellitus • Coronary heart disease • Cancer • Reproductive problems

  19. Osteoporosis

  20. Osteoporosis • Osteoporosis refers to a progressive degeneration of the structure, density and strength of the bone. A decline in bone mass can occur in older adults, causing osteoporosis. • In women this can occur during menopause due to changes in the release of oestrogen.

  21. Risk factors • Low calcium and vitamin D intake • High salt intake • High caffeine intake • High alcohol intake • Menopause- oestrogen plays a role in maintaining bone density

  22. Protective factors • Adequate Vit D intake-Vitamin D is not a structural component of bone but is required for the absorption and deposition of calcium • Calcium intake- Calcium and Phosphorus, responsible for the ossification (hardening) of hard tissue • Weight bearing exercise

  23. Activity pg 142, • Homework chapter review