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Short Presentation with Figures, Brief History and Castles. SLOVENIA. Location. Violet coloured states were joined to EU in 2004. State Symbols Coat - of - Arms and Flag. Area: 20,273 sq km Wooded areas 59,6 %, Agricultural areas 30.5 %, Built-up areas 2.8 % Total population (2003):

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  1. Short Presentation with Figures, Brief History and Castles SLOVENIA

  2. Location

  3. Violet coloured states were joined to EU in 2004

  4. StateSymbolsCoat-of-ArmsandFlag

  5. Area: 20,273 sq km Wooded areas 59,6 %, Agricultural areas 30.5 %, Built-up areas 2.8 % Total population (2003): Inhabitants 2,096,773. Population density 103.4 persons per sq km, in towns 50.8 %, 13 % high educated in the Universities Capital: Ljubljana, 305,881 inhabitants (2004) Official language: Slovene Ethnic composition of the populations: Slovene 91 %, Croat 1.8 %, Serb 2 %, Muslim 1.1 %, Hungarian 0.3 %, Italian 0.1 % Religious affiliation: Roman catholic 57.8 %, Muslim 2.4 %, Lutheran 0.7 %, Orthodox christian 2.3 %, Nonreligious 3.5 %, Atheist 10.1 %, … Monetary unit: EUR Per capita income (GDP): 22,001 USD per person MainFigures

  6. GeographicalWiewMountainousland 47.7 %, hillyandlowland 200 to 500 m altitude 44.9 %

  7. TheNorthernMontanious Part

  8. SW HillyandLittoral Part

  9. Lowland Part

  10. SlovenianWineDistricts

  11. 59,6% Wood-the most importantNaturalsource • Pine wood 38% • Fir wood 8% • Beech wood 32% • Oak wood 7% • Rest deciduous wood 15%

  12. ExceptionalQualityof Pine wood Homogenous pine wood with greater share of early inner wood due to the short vegetation. E.g., the pine wood from Pokljuka is very appropriate to be used as a quality resonance woods for musical instruments.

  13. The current Slovenian area played an essential role still during the Roman time due to the only earth way to reach theirs eastern provinces. This important geographical position enabled that this area obtained later as a crossing between W and SE Europe too. In 6C the Ghots, Huns and Langobards passed this country. Later this area was created as bordering marches called Kranjska, Savinjska, Istrska and Podravska and fell to Franks together with Karantania in 8C. At the same time came to the christianity of Slovene population. Soon after the reign of Carolus Magnus this area belonged to German part of Holy Roman Empire entirely. Slovene countries belonged to Austrian Habsburgs in1282 and remained there up to the end of WW I in 1918 with an exception of the short reign of Napoleon I. who established the state of Ilirian Province with the capital town Ljubljana. Slovene country together with the Serbs and the Croats established a new state Kingdom of SHS in 1918, later called Yugoslavia . During WW II the Slovene people lead a great resistat against ocupied forces. After 1945 Slovenia had been within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia the most developted Republic. State independance happened 25 June 1991. SlovenianHistory on Short

  14. Duke of Celje: They had very significant roles in German Empire, Hungary kingdom, large properties in Slavonia and had great influence to SE states and also good relations with the Ottomans. Theirs goal was to get an imperial crown. Unfortunately this noble family became extinct in 1456. Religious reformation and couter-reformation in 16C:Slovene lands became first written books in slovenian language. In fact the first written wording was dated at the end of 11C (Brezin monument). Maria-Therese and Josef II reforms:These reforms in 18C had very positive impacts on the life of our people. Ilyrian Province: Short period of Napoleon′s reign for 4 years was enabled nonreturnable freethinking solutions in education policy, legislation and public administration, etc. Numerous men of letters and poets in 18 and 19C: National awakening and cultural agitations. Milestones in SlovenianHistory 1

  15. Spring of nations in 1848: Since than the slovenian nationality had been strengthening more and more. Slovene voice was heard in austrian and later in austro-hungarian parlament. Year 1919: Decision for independent and joining to SHS (Slovene, Croat, Serb) Kingdom, from 1929 Yugoslavia Kgd. World War II, 1941-1945; National liberation fighting against occupiers SFR of Yugoslavia, 1945-1991: Federal Republic of Slovenia. State independance, 1991, June, 25 EU and NATO member, 2004 Milestones in SlovenianHistory 2

  16. CELJE: Celeia, ViaPetoviaAntica

  17. CELJE: Celeia, ViaEmonicaAntica

  18. Dukeof Celje Properties - nonhomogeneous

  19. TheGreatestSlovene Men ofLettersand PoetPrimoz Trubar, 16C France Preseren, 19C

  20. Ilirian Province (1809-1813)

  21. Area of Slovenian Population in 1864 acc. Mr Peter Kozler´s Research

  22. Appr. 800 CastlesandMansionHauses are scattered in theareaofcurrentSlovenia. Manyofthem are in ruins. Theworse period forourcastleswasthe period of WW II. • Thecastleshadbeenbuiltandenduredforappr. 800 years. • Ourareawas a bordercountryofEmpire, exposedhostileattacsfromtheEastandtheSouth. • Thecastleshadbeenbuilt at thestrategicalyimportantpointsandhadneverbeing central feudalpoints. Highsecularandecclesiasticalnobilityhadtheirsresidentsbeyondthisdangerterritory. Ourmediaevalcastleshadmainlyministerialanddefence role. • Typesofthecastlesbuilt-in duringthe time: • romanesquecastels, castrums, • gothiccastles, commandry • mediaevalmanorhouses, • renaissancenobledwellings, • mature baroquecastlesandparksand • classicismcastles. CASTLES in SloveneArea- in General

  23. Castles in SlovenianArea in 15C

  24. Defence tower in Ptuj castle was found to be built as the first in 11C. Castle positions: extreme rock edges, rocky mountain hollows, mounds, confluences of rivers, middle of marsh, sorrounded by deep ditches filled with water etc. Built structure: palatial selected from well fortified defended site, incl. palisades to castle personnel, guard, maids ( visible at Ptuj and Bled) etc. After 1200 AD – Bergfrids: safeguarding to the castle entrances (Ostrovica). Fort castle in the form of tower (Kamen, Lemberg near Celje, Skofja Loka, ..) Castle chapels are an important element which are from the view of art in the same range as the most beautiful castel chapels in pre-Alpin region. Golden Age of development of our castles was in 13C. RomanesqueCastles – from 1000 AD to 16C

  25. Celje, MediaevalUpperCastle

  26. Castle buildings rose more and more in 13C. Castle entrances and palace became more confortable with larger windows, heatings by the help of open fire and later with built-in stoves. It became to external brilliance and representation. Mainly many castles were rebuilt: extended incl. romanesque building with concentricaly or alongated part – composite castle. But no new castle being built after the end of 15C. Since that time these castles were used for fortification only. GothicCastles – from 13C to 16C

  27. Tower and Yard: Tower house, rarely higher than 2 storeys. Never permitted to be fortified except in the time of Ottoman danger. The exception was granted by provincial Lord with the given licences like for market squeres and towns … In this case was allowed that the castle could be sorounded by new walls, masive defence towers and bastions (Žužemberk, Turjak, …). 16C – residentially confortable character of buildings by the help of italian architects. Mediaevalmanorhouse– from 15C to 16C

  28. Building: Regular symmetrical with no more than 2 storeys, rectangular courtyard sorounded by arcades, on the ground floor resting upon columns. Fasade was equipped with consoles, frieze, … Fortification was visualised externaly with no trace in their interiors. Corners were protected by towers fortified with cannon ports and loopholes for manual fire altilery. Two sorts of towers: angular (Kranjska / Carniola) and rounded (Spodnja Štajerska / Lower Styria). The fortification elements are slowly moved into background in 17C. Defence elements disappeared, the elegant corner towers became more decorative. Villas: Italian model appeared (Zemono castle with special building concept). Renaissancenobledwellings–from 16C to 17C

  29. Fresh ascent for the manor houses, livelier fasade and interier (Brežice) Manor houses rebuilt and modelled on Schönbrunn ( Novo Celje) Pavilion style wings were added to rebuilt manor house (Dornava) The mansions were furnished with frescoes, wall hangings etc. Parks: The basic characteristic was an emphasised central axis coming from afar through drive towards the mansion. At both sides were strictly geometrical pleasure-grounds with the sculptures and fontaines, … Mature baroque– 18C

  30. No further monumental noble buildings were erected. Numerous new parks incl. pavilions, gloriets etc became to greater importance than the mansions. New mansions were eltered in various ways in Neo-Gothic, Moorish or other “antique” appearance, often in the new English castle style. CLassicism– 19C

  31. Radovljicayou are kindlyinvited to thenextmeeting in radovljica

  32. LUR (Ljudska univerza Radovljica) is a public education institute for the adults. • Legurarly lectures of world, european and domestic history are held for cca 90 hours/yearly. This programme has been taken for appr. 5 years. • Not obligatory travelings and trips within the history programme: • Two travelings a year are organised for appr. 10 and 3 days, e.g. to Cornwall and Wales, to Normandy and Brittany, to Emilia Romana and Veneto, to Campania and Appulia, to Israel and to Wien, so far. Next intention is to visit important historical points in Germany. • Monthly one day trips are organised to slovenian historical interesting points as well as to neighbourhoods e.g. to Austria, to Italy, to Croatia and to Hungary. • Appr 3 hours trips are organised to very interesting pts of slovenian capital town too. GRUNTDVIG PROGRAMME 2013, 14 and 15 • English history: The lectures of appr. 20 hours was given to hearers before Cornwall visit. In such a way the lectures of Spanish and Hungarian history will be given to them before the next visits too. • The lectures of digital pfotography are organised in aim to get the appropriate photos from the meetings for the exposition which should be prepared before the next meeting in Slovenia. It is also an opportunity for hearers to learn more about good photography. LUR - LifelongEducationProgrammeofHistory, Castlesandnobility

  33. Thank You for Your Attention

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