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AKS 49: Change & Continuity in the World Since the 1960s PowerPoint Presentation
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AKS 49: Change & Continuity in the World Since the 1960s

AKS 49: Change & Continuity in the World Since the 1960s

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AKS 49: Change & Continuity in the World Since the 1960s

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  1. AKS 49:Change & Continuity in the World Since the 1960s

  2. Pan-AfricanismWhat is it? • Political force that started w/ Black Power movement in U.S. under Malcolm X • National movement emphasizing unity of all Africans & ending foreign control • Helped spur the independence movement in many African countries • Nkrumah in Ghana (United States of Africa)

  3. Pan-AfricanismLegacy • Today used as a strategy for addressing the problems of Africa (mostly regional cooperative groups)

  4. Pan-ArabismWhat is it? • General term for the modern movement for political unification among the Arab nations of the Middle East

  5. Pan-ArabismGoals/Aims? • Hostility toward Zionist aims in Palestine has been a major rallying point for Arab nationalists • The use of oil as an economic & political weapon

  6. Human Rights Issues • 1948: U.N. issues Universal Declaration of Human Rights • Set human rights standards for all nations • Listed specific rights all humans should have

  7. Conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina:Causes of the Breakup of Yugoslavia • Ethnic conflicts • End of Tito’s Communist rule, leadership taken over by Slobodan Milosevic • Serbian invasions of Slovenia & Croatia • War in Bosnia

  8. Conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina:Ethnic Cleansing • During war, Serbs followed a policy of brutality & murder called ethnic cleansing • Goal: to wipe out the Muslims living in Serb-held lands

  9. Conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Effects of the Breakup of Yugoslavia • Dec. 1995 – Leaders of Bosnian Muslims, Serbs, & Croats signed U.N. and U.S.-brokered peace treaty • Sept. 1996 – Bosnians elected 3-person presidency (one leader from each ethnic group) • 2001 – Country could stand alone w/ little supervision by international community

  10. Rwandan GenocideCauses • Ethnic conflict between Hutus & Tutsis • 1994 – Rwandan President (Hutu) died in a suspicious plane crash

  11. Rwandan Genocide • In months that followed, Hutus slaughtered about 1 million Tutsis before Tutsi rebels put an end to the killings This was one of the worst cases of genocide

  12. The Collapse of the Soviet Union

  13. Collapse of Soviet Union Problem or Crisis Soviet society had stopped growing as a result of totalitarian policies banning political dissent. Gorbachev initiated his glasnost policy, encouraging a free flow of ideas & information Responses

  14. Collapse of Soviet Union Problem or Crisis The Soviet economy was inefficient and unproductive. Gorbachev introduced perestroika, giving managers more authority over their farms & factories & allowing for creation of small private businesses. Responses

  15. Collapse of Soviet Union Problem or Crisis The Soviet-U.S. arms race had become too costly. Gorbachev signed the INF treaty with President Reagan. Responses

  16. Collapse of Soviet Union Problem or Crisis In August 1991, hard-liners staged a coup against Gorbachev. • Hard-liners demanded Gorbachev’s resignation • Protesters appealed to Yeltsin to oppose the coup • Yeltsin mobilized support against the coup • Troops refused to obey hard-liners • Coup failed & Gorbachev returned to Moscow Responses

  17. Collapse of Soviet Union Problem or Crisis The Soviet Union broke up. • After the coup, Estonia & Latvia declared independence • Other republics, including Ukraine & Kazakhstan, soon followed • Yeltsin met with leaders of republics to chart new course • They formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Responses

  18. Collapse of Soviet Union Problem or Crisis The Russian economy under Boris Yeltsin was ailing. • Yeltsin adopted “shock therapy” to deal with ailing economy • This involved abrupt shift to free-market economies • Lowered trade barriers, removed price controls, ended subsidies to state industries Responses

  19. Collapse of Soviet Union Problem or Crisis In 1991, Chechnya declared its independence. • Yeltsin denied Chechnya’s right to secede • He ordered Russian troops into Chechnya • Despite cease fire, fighting flared up again & Yeltsin resigned as fighting raged • Vladimir Putin attempted to deal forcefully with the rebellion • The fighting continued Responses

  20. Terrorism asWarfare

  21. What is terrorism? • Use of violence against people or property to force changes in societies or gov’ts

  22. Why is it difficult for countries to fight terrorism? • Because terrorists often cross national borders to commit their acts or to escape to countries friendly to their cause

  23. Terrorist Groups:Shining Path • Location: • Peru

  24. Terrorist Groups:Shining Path • Mission/Goals: • Destabilize & overthrow Peruvian gov’t

  25. Terrorist Groups:Shining Path • Founded/Leaders: • Abimael Guzmán (1960s) • Sendero Luminoso (modern-day)

  26. Terrorist Groups:Shining Path • Prominent Attacks: • None – minor attacks on police and military forces in Peru

  27. Terrorist Groups:Red Brigade • Location: • Italy

  28. Terrorist Groups:Red Brigade • Mission/Goals: • Force Italy to leave the NATO alliance

  29. Terrorist Groups:Red Brigade • Leaders: • Renato Curcio, Alberto Franceschini and Mara Cagol

  30. Terrorist Groups:Red Brigade • Prominent Attacks: • Most famous for the kidnap & murder of former Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1978

  31. Terrorist Groups:Hamas • Location: • Palestine (based in Gaza strip)

  32. Terrorist Groups:Hamas • Mission/Goals: • Destruction of Israel, the replacement of the PA with an Islamist state on the West Bank & Gaza, & to raising "the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine"

  33. Terrorist Groups:Hamas • Leaders: • Ismail Haniyeh Khaled Meshal

  34. Terrorist Groups:Hamas • Prominent Attacks: • Believed to have killed more than 500 people in more than 350 separate terrorist attacks since 1993, ranging from suicide bomb attacks to military attacks

  35. Terrorist GroupsAl Qaeda • Location: • Afghanistan

  36. Terrorist GroupsAl Qaeda • Mission/Goals: • Seeks to rid Muslim countries of what it sees as the profane influence of the West and replace their governments with fundamentalist Islamic regimes

  37. Terrorist GroupsAl Qaeda • Leaders: • Osama bin Laden • Saad bin Laden • Ayman al-Zawahiri • Mustafa Abu al-Yazid • Several Others

  38. Terrorist GroupsAl Qaeda • Prominent Attacks • 9/11 attacks • July 2005 bombings of the London public transportation system • March 2004 bomb attacks on Madrid commuter trains • October 2000 U.S.S. Cole bombing • Many others

  39. Because of Terrorism:Changes in Travel • FAA ordered airlines to install bars on cockpit doors to prevent hijackers from gaining control of the plan

  40. Because of Terrorism:Changes in Travel • Sky marshals (trained security officers) were assigned to fly on planes

  41. Because of Terrorism:Changes in Travel • National Guard troops began patrolling airports

  42. Because of Terrorism:World Energy Supplies • 4,000 tankers carry 60 percent of the world's oil on the seas – sea is vastly unpoliced

  43. Because of Terrorism:World Energy Supplies • Terrorists know that an oil market with little wiggle room offers an ideal target for undermining the world economy

  44. Because of Terrorism:World Energy Supplies • Oil supplies are, in the words of Al Qaeda, "the provision line and the feeding to the artery of the life of the crusader nation."

  45. Because of Terrorism:Financial Markets • Immediate • destruction of life & property • responses to the emergency • restoration of the systems & the infrastructure affected • the provision of temporary living assistance • Long-Term • undermining consumer confidence  can reduce the incentive to spend as opposed to save • falling investor confidence  trigger a generalized drop in asset prices & a hit to quality that increases the borrowing costs for riskier borrowers

  46. Women of Power

  47. Golda Meir • Signer of Israel’s Declaration of Independence • Prime Minister of Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War • Arabs attacked, gained some of the territory lost in 1967 • Meir launched counterattack, regained most of territory

  48. Indira Gandhi • Daughter of Nehru • Became Prime Minister of India • Troubled with acts of violence from Sikh extremists agitating for independence • She was gunned down by two of her Sikh bodyguards in retaliation for an attack she ordered on a Sikh temple

  49. Margaret Thatcher • Prime Minister of England from 1979-1990 • Revolutionary, but controversial figure • Revitalized Britain's economy • Contributed to the end of the Cold War & the fall of communism