Essential Question:How did World War I (WWI) change Europe and the world?(SS6H7a)
Standard: SS6H7a Describe major developments following World War I: the Russian Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, worldwide depression, and the rise of Nazism
Activating Strategy: Watch and listen to the clip about Europe after World War I and discuss the questions below.http://www.the-map-as-history.com/demos/tome03/index.php Why do you think Russia signed a treaty to get out of World War I early? How did the map of Europe change after World War I? How do you think these changes affected people in Europe?
Causes of World War "The Great War was without precedent ... never had so many nations taken up arms at a single time. Never had the battlefield been so vast…never had the fighting been so gruesome..."
Causes of World War I(Take notes on graphic organizer) • Militarism – building up armed forces, getting ready for war • Alliances – agreements or promises to defend and help another country • Imperialism – trying to build up an empire (powerful country that controls several less powerful countries • Nationalism – having pride in your country, willing to defend it
Militarism • There was fierce competition over land in Europe • Armies and navies were greatly expanded. The standing armies of France and Germany doubled in size between 1870 and 1914. • Naval expansion was also extremely competitive, particularly between Germany and Great Britain. • Russia wanted to expand its land and gain access to warm water ports. These ports would give the Russian navy the Mediterranean Sea • Germany began a military buildup and increased its navy
Alliance An agreement among people or nations to unite for a common cause. Each member of an alliance agrees to help the other members in case one is attacked.
Germany in the Middle Germany’s big problem was that it was in the middle of Europe. That made it vulnerable if it came to war.
In the 19th century, Germany’s brilliant Chancellor, Bismarck, solved this problem by keeping friends with Russia and Austria-Hungary
Then Bismarck allied with Italy and Austria-Hungary (the Triple Alliance). Together with his friendship with Russia, this kept Germany safe.
But when Kaiser Wilhelm became Emperor, he dumped the Russian alliance. He kept the Triple Alliance, but this did NOT solve the problem of Germany’s encirclement.
The Triple Entente In 1907 Russia joined Britain and France to make the Triple Entente. By 1914 Europe had divided into two massive superpower blocks.
Distributed Summarizing With a seat partner, discuss a time in your life when an alliance (with a friend, family member, or someone else) has caused problems.
Imperialism • Great Britain, Germany and France needed foreign markets after the increase in manufacturing caused by the Industrial Revolution. • These countries competed for economic expansion in Africa. • Although Britain and France resolved their differences in Africa, several crises foreshadowing the war involved the clash of Germany against Britain and France in North Africa.
Nationalism • Pride in one’s country; nations sought their own interests over others • In the 19th century, nationalism took the form of people struggling for independence • Serbia was at the center of the nationalist movement in an area of Europe known as the Balkans • What happened in the Balkans was a spark that started the war. • Serbia considered Austria-Hungary as an enemy because Serbs in Austria-Hungary wanted to unite with Serbia and create a larger Serbian state
The events that followed… Because of the assignation of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June of 1914 by a member of a nationalistic secret Serbian society, the emperor of Austria-Hungary declared war of Serbia.
The events that followed… Russia sent troops to defend Serbia because Russia had a separate treaty with Serbia. Russia supported Serbia because they were both of a similar ethnic backgrounds.
The events that followed… Since Germany had a treaty with Austria- Hungary (the Triple Alliance), Germany declared war on Russia.
The events that followed… France had a treaty with Russia (the Triple Entente) so Germany declared war against France.
Things changed during the war The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente turned into these two WWI alliances. The Triple Alliance plus more formed the Center Powers The Triple Entente plus more formed the Allied Powers
Some of the Technological Advances from WWI • Tank • Aircraft • Machine Gun • Gas used as a weapon • Flamethrower
Distributed Summarizing Could World War I have been prevented? Why or why not? Would we have had the technological advances without WWI?
Russia: A Background • Nicholas II – autocratic and ineffective • He ruled a country covering one-sixth of the earth’s total land surface • He had massive personal wealth • He was backed by an army of 1 million and secret police • Political parties banned – critics ended up in prison or exile • Press was censored
Russia: A Background • Many Russians worshipped the Tsar and peasants typically had a picture of the Tsar on a wall of their hut. • His word was law • He appointed his ministers • But did not have to listen to them • AND could ‘hire and fire’ them at will • He was a true autocrat.
Russia was… • Only 40% ethnic Russians • 80% were peasants – subsistence farmers • 60%+ = illiterate • Life expectancy = 40 • Low tech and low investment • Land ownership rare • Land owned by the Commune • It also organized taxes and allotted strips of land to each household
Distributed Summarizing During the time described, Russia was like ____________ because _________________________. Share your answer with a partner.
Watch the United Streaming video clip: Russian Revolution(Time - 9:31; the first few minutes link to previous video clips)http://player.discoveryeducation.com/?blnPreviewOnly=1&guidAssetId=ac3fe43d-f94f-494b-916e-c53c22ac7185
Russian Revolution • Russian revolution started in 1917 and had two parts. • The first part was the February Revolution in which the czar (Tsar, national ruler) was overthrown. • People were unhappy about how the czar and his government were running the country. People were starving while the aristocracy was living in luxury. • People were also upset about their participation in the war.
Russian Revolution • The Russian army was big but poorly equipped; the army lost battles which lowered civilian and military morale • The czar was seen as a poor military and political leader while his German wife (tsarina) was left in charge of the government and was influenced by a man many thought was crazy (Rasputin) • There were not enough workers in the factories and farms which caused shortages of food and materials • The railway system was weak; therefore, troops nor towns could get supplies
Russian Revolution • The second part of the Russian Revolution was the October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution) • The October Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin • After two years of civil war, the communist forces gained control • Russia became the communist country of the Soviet Union • Communism continued in Russia until nearly the end of the century
Distributed Summarizing With a partner, discuss why the Russian Revolution occurred and what happened to Russia because of the revolution. Write your answers on the Major Developments in Europe After WWI sheet.
The War is Over! Leaders come together to decide the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
Treaty of Versailles Simulation In small groups, students will represent a main character from the Treaty of Versailles. Students will simulate debates during the signing of the treaty and make decisions based on their character’s viewpoints.
Examining the Treaty of Versailles After simulating discussions from the Treaty of Versailles, in small groups, students will examine components of the real treaty to determine the actual decisions that were made. Other groups will examine Germany’s response to the treaty.
Examining the Treaty Questions • Which aspect of the treaty did you examine? (political, military, reparations, or Germany’s response) • Those examining the treaty: Describe the types of requirements or restrictions placed on Germany • Those examining the treaty: How might these requirements or restrictions impact Germany? • Those examining Germany’s response: Do you agree or disagree with the Treaty of Versailles? • Those examining Germany’s response: How will the treaty impact you and your country?
The Treaty of Versailles(add requirements of the treaty to Major Developments sheet) • The Treaty of Versailles officially ended WWI • It forced Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war • It required Germany to pay reparations (payments) to other countries for their losses and damage • It required Germany to give up 1 million square miles of land (size of Alaska and Texas combined) much of which was rich in natural resources (Why does this matter?) • It required Germany to limit its armed forces • The U.S. did not sign the Treaty of Versailles
Listen to the National Public Radio story about Germany making its last reparation payment in September 2010. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=130232809
Treaty of VersaillesCopy &Continue WritingAssignment
After WWI and worldwide depression • WWI affected the European economy because nations had war debt to repay • Soldiers came home needing jobs, but there were not enough. Unemployment skyrocketed.(Listen to “Stony Broke in No Man’s Land”) • In 1929, the stock market crash led to depression in the U.S. but also all over the world • Countries experienced Inflation (a condition where prices rise and money loses value; therefore, you cannot buy as much as you used to with the same amount of money)
After WWI and worldwide depression • Industry, shipping, and trade between countries were affected • Around the world, unrest and nationalism grew, people wanted strong leadership to make their countries rich and powerful again • However, the Great Depression weakened many countries when they needed to be strong. Why is this significant?
Image you are living in Germany after World War I. The world is in the middle of a depression. You do not have enough food, you do not have a job, and you do not believe the leaders of your country can improve the situation. On top of that, your country, the place where you were born and have lived all of your life is being blamed and punished for World War I.Now, read Adolf Hitler’s speech on the Treaty of Versailles in 1923. Then, watch a video clip of Hitler delivering a speech years later. http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=7205F2A8-797E-4971-AEF4-6604694FC04E&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=USWhy do you think the German people followed Hitler?
Rise of Nazism • The democratic government in Germany after World War I (Weimar Republic) faced major problems • A political party called the Nazi Party attracted the attention of dissatisfied Germans • The Nazi Party’s leader, Adolf Hitler, described ideas to strengthen Germany • Hitler also believed that Aryans (Germans) were the “master race”; he had racist feelings about Jews, Slavs, gypsies, and blacks • The Nazi Party believed in fascism (where a strong central government is controlled by the military and run by a dictator)