World History II SOL Review World War II and the Cold War
Causes of World War II Page 490-518
Causes of World War II Totalitarian Dictators Nationalism Treaty of Versailles U.S. Isolationism and Pacifism Failure of the League of Nations Appeasement
T The shades of purple show the areas either allied with or occupied/ controlled by the Axis powers. The green areas represent the Allied powers. Now do you understand the significance of the invasion of Normandy?
Quote by Winston Churchill in reference to the pilots of the Royal Air Force (RAF) who were defending the British people during the Battle of Britain. Fall of France Attack on Pearl Harbor
June 6, 1944:D-DayThe Invasion of Normandy Allied soldiers approaching the coast of Normandy The invasion was led by this man, General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Important People Eisenhower: American general in charge of D-Day invasion Roosevelt: American president at the outbreak of the war
Truman: American President at the end of the war Makes the decision to drop the atomic bomb Churchill: British Prime Minister
Stalin: Soviet Dictator
Hitler: Nazi German leader Hirohito: Japanese emperor Tojo: Japanese general
MacArthur: American general, Philippine campaign and postwar Japan Marshall: American general, top advisor to Roosevelt
The Holocaust “Work Will Set you Free”
Events leading up to the Holocaust • The Holocaust is partially a result of thousands of years of hatred of Jews • 1. Totalitarianism + nationalism + industrialization belief in the Holocaust • 2. European legacy of anti-Semitism • 3. defeat in World War I and the Great Depression blamed on the Jews • 4. Hitler’s belief in the “master” race – Aryan • 5. Final Solution – systematic attempt to remove all Jews from the face of the Earth – death camps, gas chambers
Genocide: the systematic attempt to eliminate a group of people from the face of the earth The map to the right and the next slide show other examples of genocide
Outcomes of World War II Loss of empires by European powers Establishment of two major powers in the world: The United States and the U.S.S.R. War crimes trials Division of Europe: Iron Curtain The Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Marshall Plan Formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact
Outcomes of World War II Loss of empires by European powers Establishment of two major powers in the world:____________ _________________________________ ______________________ Division of Europe: ____________ _____________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
And that’s how the U.S. used M.A.G.I.C. to fix West Gem any and Japan after World War II.
The United Nations • Somewhat like the League of Nations, the United Nations was formed to prevent future wars. • The UN has more power than the League of Nations did. And yes, the United States is a member.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) • Defensive Alliance (1949) • Western Europe • United States, Canada • Resist invasion by Soviet Union • Collective security –“Attack on one is an attack on all”
Warsaw Pact • Defensive pact between Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite nations • Response to NATO
Universal Declaration of Human Rights • Established and adopted by members of the United Nations • Provided a code of conduct for the treatment of people under the protection of their government
Follow Up Questions • What was the Marshall Plan? • Who was Douglas MacArthur? Identify at least two things he did. • After WWII, the Allies limited the militaries of Japan and Germany. How was the security of these countries guaranteed? • How was the treatment of the defeated powers different in WWII than it was in WWI? • How was the U.N. different from the League of Nations? • Identify the Warsaw Pact and NATO. What are these examples of? Have they caused problems in the past? • What is a “satellite nation”? • What was the UDHR? Why was it created?
Beginning of the Cold War (1945 – 1989) • Definition – Period of time between 1945 and 1989 or 1991 when the United States and U.S.S.R. faced off in a clash of two different ideologies. • Intense competition for control of the world
Cold War(1945 – 1989) • United States represented • democracy • free market economic system • individual freedoms • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics • totalitarian government • communist (socialist) economic system • no freedoms
Yalta – February 1945 • Big Three – Franklin D. Roosevelt (U.S.), Joseph Stalin (U.S.S.R.), and Winston Churchill (G.B.) met to discuss the future of post-war Europe
Post War Germany • Big Three agree to divide Germany into four sections • -- British • -- American • -- Russian • -- French
Post War Germany • Original plan to unite all four zones • One nation • Berlin capital • Russians refuse • Uh-oh…
West Germany • Russian dominated zone • Eastern zones • -- Puppet regime controlled by the U.S.S.R. – satellites • -- Communist/totalitarian government • -- Pro-Soviet • -- Communist/command economy • Britain, France, and the United States unite their zones • Western zones • Resume self-government • Liberal democracy • Pro-United States • Capitalist East Germany
Berlin • Located in East Germany • Former capital also divided among four allied powers • Located in Russian zone • West Berlin capital of West Germany • East Berlin Capital of East Germany
Eastern and Central Europe • Stalin promised “free” elections in Eastern and Central Europe at Yalta in 1945 • Post-War – Occupied by Soviet Union • After elections all become communist • Satellite Nations Puppets controlled by Soviet Union • “Iron Curtain” – nicknamed by Winston Churchill in a famous speech
Marshall=MONEY Marshall Plan (1947) • United States offers financial aid to Europe • Eastern Europe refuses (why?!) • Rebuilds Western European economies • Stop spread of communism through “friendship” (how?!) What does this cartoon mean?
Recipients: Marshall Plan Who gets most of the money? Why do those countries receive money? What countries do not receive money? Why?
Truman Doctrine (1947) • Containment of Communism • Goal is to resist spread not roll back communism • Aid to Greece and Turkey Harry S. Truman Josef Stalin
Space Race • U.S. Government goes crazy due to the successful launch of… • Soviet Union • Sputnik • First satellite
Berlin Wall (1961) • Separates Soviet East Berlin from Western Zone • Attempt to prevent flight of East Germans to West • Symbol of Cold War